Consensus among Ahlesunnah Scholars that Wives of Prophet(saw) are included in Ahlebayt mentioned in (33:33)


1. Al-Razi, al-Tafsir al-Kabir (6:615): “Allah Most High quit using the feminine pronoun in his address and turned to the masculine by saying {liyudhhiba `ankum al-rijsa = to remove uncleanness far from you [masculine plural]}, so as to include both the women of his [i.e. the Prophet's] house and the men. Explanations have differed concerning the ‘Ahl al-Bayt’ but the most appropriate and correct is to say they are his children and wives; al-Hasan and al-Husayn being among them and `Ali being among them… due to his cohabitation with the daughter of the Prophet and his close companionship with the Prophet .”

2. Al-Baghawi, Ma`alim al-Tanzil (2:393): “In this verse [Hud 73] there is a proof that wives are part of Ahl al-Bayt. … (3:428) He means by Ahl al-Bayt [in 33:33] the wives of the Prophet because they are in his house and this is the narration of Sa`id ibn Jubayr from Ibn `Abbas.”

3. Al-Baydawi, Anwar al-Tanzil (4:374): “The Shi`a’s claim that verse 33:33 is specific to Fatima, `Ali, and their two sons – Allah be well-pleased with them – … and their adducing it as proof of their immunity from sin (`ismat) and of the probative character of their consensus, is weak, because restricting the meaning to them is not consistent with what precedes the verse and what follows it. The thread of speech means that they are part of the Ahl al-Bayt, not that others are not part of it also.”

4. Al-Khazin, Lubab al-Ta’wil fi Ma`ani al-Tanzil (3:490): “They [Ahl al-Bayt] are the wives of the Prophet because they are in his house.” Then he mentions the other two explanations, namely, that they are the `Itra or that they are the families of `Ali, `Aqil, Ja`far, and al-`Abbas.

5. Al-Nasafi, Madarik al-Tanzil wa Haqa’iq al-Ta’wil (3:490): “There is in it [verse 33:33] a proof that his wives are part of the Folk of his Household (min ahli baytihi). He said ‘from you [M] (`ankum)’ because what is meant are both the men and women of his family (âl) as indicated by {wa yutahhirakum tathûran = and cleanse you [M/F] with a thorough cleansing} from the filth of sins.”

6. Al-Tabari, Tafsir (22:7) [after citing reports explaining Ahl al-Bayt to mean the `Itra] and al-Wahidi, Asbab al-Nuzul (p. 299 #734): From `Ikrima concerning 33:33: “It is not as they claim, but the verse was revealed concerning the wives of the Prophet .”

7. Al-Zamakhshari, Tafsir al-Kashshaf (2:212): “In this [33:33] there is an explicit proof that the wives of the Prophet – Allah bless and greet him – are among the People of his House (min Ahli Baytihi).”

8. Al-Shawkani, Fath al-Qadir (4:278-280)  “Ibn `Abbas, `Ikrima, `Ata’, al-Kalbi, Muqatil, and Sa`id ibn Jubayr said the wives of the Prophet are specifically meant [in 33:33], and by house are meant the houses of his wives as mentioned before in the verses. While Abu Sa`id al-Khudri, Mujahid, and Qatada – it is also related from al-Kalbi – said that those meant are specifically `Ali, Fatima, al-Hasan, and al-Husayn. They adduced the fact that the pronouns are in the masculine, but this was refuted by the fact that the noun Ahl is masculine and therefore necessitates a masculine gender as in the verse [Hud 73]…. A third group stands midway between the two and includes both [the wives and the `Itra]… A number of the verifying authorities consider this the most correct explanation, among them al-Qurtubi, Ibn Kathir, and others.”

Al Shawkani says in his tafsir al fat-h al qadeer the various views, and he says:

فمن جعل الآية خاصة بأحد الفريقين فقد أعمل بعض ما يجب إعماله وأهمل ما لا يجوز إهماله. وقد رجح هذا القول جماعة من المحققين منهم القرطبي وابن كثير وغيرهما

“and whoever makes this verse refer specifically to either group exclusively (the wives) OR (fatima, ali, hassan, hussein) then he has included part but excluded part which is forbidden to exclude. And to this position a group of scholars has gone, including Qurtubi, Ibn Kathir, and others.”

9. al-Mubarakfuri, Tuhfat al-Ahwadhi (9:48-49) : “Ibn `Abbas, `Ikrima, `Ata’, al-Kalbi, Muqatil, and Sa`id ibn Jubayr said the wives of the Prophet are specifically meant [in 33:33], and by house are meant the houses of his wives as mentioned before in the verses. While Abu Sa`id al-Khudri, Mujahid, and Qatada – it is also related from al-Kalbi – said that those meant are specifically `Ali, Fatima, al-Hasan, and al-Husayn. They adduced the fact that the pronouns are in the masculine, but this was refuted by the fact that the noun Ahl is masculine and therefore necessitates a masculine gender as in the verse [Hud 73]…. A third group stands midway between the two and includes both [the wives and the `Itra]… A number of the verifying authorities consider this the most correct explanation, among them al-Qurtubi, Ibn Kathir, and others.”

10. Al-Jalalayn: “Ahl al-Bayt [in 33:33] i.e. the wives of the Prophet(saw)”

11. Al-Sawi, Hashiyat al-Jalalayn: “It was said the verse [33:33] is comprehensive (`âmma) to mean the People of his House in the sense of his dwelling and these are his wives, and the People of his House in the sense of his lineage and these are his offspring.”

12. Al-Suyuti, al-Durr al-Manthur (6:603): [after citing the narrations of the `Itra] Ibn Sa`d narrated from `Urwa that he said: “Ahl al-Bayt [in 33:33] means the wives of the Prophet and it was revealed in the house of `A’isha.”

13. Ibn al-Jawzi, Zad al-Masir fi `Ilm al-Tafsir (6:378): “Then He showed their superiority over all women when He said: {You [feminine] are not like anyone [masculine] of the women} (33:32). Al-Zajjaj [the philologist] said: ‘He did not say, “like any other woman” in the feminine, because the masculine form denotes a general exclusion of both male and female [human beings], one and all.’”

14. Ibn Juzayy, Tafsir (p. 561): “The Ahl al-Bayt of the Prophet are his wives, his offspring, and his near relatives such as al-`Abbas, `Ali, and all for whom receiving sadaqa is unlawful.”

15. Al-Bukhari, Sahih: Hadith from Anas: The Prophet visited `A’isha and, upon entering her house, said: “As-Salâmu `alaykum Ahl al-Bayt! wa rahmatullah.” Whereupon she responded: “Wa `alayka as-Salam wa rahmatullah, how did you find your wives [ahlak]? May Allah bless you.” Then he went around to see all of his wives and said to them exactly what he had said to `A’isha.

16. Al-Wahidi, al-Wajiz fi Tafsir al-Kitab al-`Aziz (2:865): “Ahl al-Bayt [in 33:33] meaning, the wives of the Prophet and the men [and women] of the People of his House.”

17. Al-Tha`alibi, Jawahir al-Hisan fi Tafsir al-Qur’an (2:212): “This verse [Hud 73] shows that the wife of a man is part of the People of his House (min Ahli Baytihi)… and ‘the House’ in Surat al-Ahzab [33:33] refers to the dwelling quarters [i.e. of the wives].”

18. Ibn Kathir, Tafsir (3:532) and al-Wahidi, Asbab al-Nuzul (p. 299 #733): From Ibn `Abbas: “This verse [33:33] was revealed concerning the wives of the Prophet .”

19. Ibn Jama`a, Ghurar al-Tibyan fi Ma lam Yusamma fi al-Qur’an (p. 421 #1201) and al-Suyuti in Mufhamat al-Aqran fi Mubhamat al-Qur’an: “Ahl al-Bayt in verse 33 are the Prophet and his wives. It was also said they are `Ali, Fatima, al-Hasan, and al-Husayn, and it was also said they are those for whom sadaqa is unlawful [i.e. Âl `Aqil, Âl `Ali, Âl Ja`far, and Âl al-`Abbas].”

20. Al-Zarkashi, al-Burhan fi `Ulum al-Qur’an (2:197): “The phrasing of the Qur’an [in Surat al-Ahzab] shows that the wives are meant, that the verses were revealed concerning them, and that it is impossible to exclude them from the meaning of the verse. However, since others were to be included with them it was said with the masculine gender: {Allah desires to remove uncleanness far from you [masculine plural], O Folk of the Household}. It is then known that this desire comprises all the Folk of the Household – both male and female – as opposed to His saying {O wives of the Prophet} and it shows that `Ali and Fatima are more [specifically] deserving of this description ["Ahl al-Bayt"] than the wives.”

21. Al-Jassas, Ahkam al-Qur’an (4:378-379): “It [the verse Hud 73] shows that the wives of the Prophet – Allah bless and greet him – are of the People of his House (min Ahli Baytihi) because the angels names Ibrahim’s wife as being of the People of his House, and so has Allah Most High said when addressing the wives of the Prophet – Allah bless and greet him – when He said:… [33:33]. His wives are part of those meant because the beginning of the address concerns them.”

22. Abu al-Su`ud, Irshad al-`Aql al-Salim ila Mazaya al-Qur’an al-Karim (7:103):”This [33:33], as you see, is an explicit verse and a radiant proof that the wives of the Prophet – Allah bless and greet him – are among the People of his House (min Ahli Baytihi), ruling once and for all the invalidity of the opinion of the Shi`is who narrow it to mean only Fatima, `Ali, and their two sons – Allah be well-pleased with them. As for what they claim as their proof [hadith of the Mantle], it only shows that they [the Four] are part of Ahl al-Bayt, not that other than them are excluded.”

23. Sayyid Abul Ala Mawdoodi, Tafheem ul Quran (commentary 33:33) states: rather the more correct thing is that the verse is actually addressed to the wives and the children become included in the household only because of the sense of the word. That is why according to lbn ‘Abbas and ‘Urwah bin Zubair and `Ikrimah, the word ahl al-bait in this verse implies the wives of the Holy Prophet.

24. Mufti Shafi Uthmani, Maarif ul quran vol 7, pg 150: The sound position is that under the word ahlebayt  the blessed wives are included in any case, because they themselves are the cause for the revealation of this verse. And the inclusion of the direction addresses of the revelation cannot be subjected to any doubts. And sayyiduna Fatima, ali, hasan , hussain (may allah be pleased with them all) too in accordance with the saying of prophet(saw) are included in ahlebayt.

25. Sayyid qutub, In the shade of Quran vol XIV , pg. 55-59 : The passage we are currently discussing now includes an address to the Prophet’s wives giving them instructions concerning their relations with other people, their own status and their relations with God. This address also includes a gentle directive expressed in fine style: “God only wants to remove all that is loathsome from you, you members of the [Prophet’s] household, and to purify you fully.” (Verse 33)

26. Ibn Hajar al Haytami; al-Sawa’iq al-Muhriqah, Ch. 11, section 1, p220) He mentions what he considers is the correct opinion which is that ahl al bayt are his wives, Fatimah, Ali, al Hasan, al Husain, and Bani Hashim and Muttalib.

27. Imam Qurtubi: He states that it was Al Zajjaj’s opinion that the wives of the Prophet peace be upon him are included in the Ahlel Bayt

28. Sheikh Sha’raawi:He gives a nice argument from an Arabic linguistic point of view that the verse is including the wives of the Prophet peace be upon him he states: And it is noted in this verse as well: {Allah only wishes to remove from you impurity, people of household, and to purify you completely}[al-Ahzab: 33] that it is narrated regarding the women, rather it is an issue considered covering the men; thus consider the pronoun mentioned {…to remove from you (masculine plural)}[al-Ahzab:33] and it does not say “from you (feminine plural), and it is the same in: {…and to purify you completely}[al-Ahzab:33] and it proves true that by people of the household is intended the men and women altogether.

29. Maulana syed mohammad Naeem-ud-Deen Muradabadi (who was khalifa of ahmed raza khan barelwi): from this verse the fazilat of ahle bayt is proved, In ahlebayt wives of prophet(saw) and hz Fatima(ra), hz ali(ra). Hz hassan(ra), hz hussain(ra) are included . This is the conclusion when verse and narrations are referred and this was even the view of Imam Abu Mansoor Maturudi.( Khazaain-ul-Irfan, under verse 33:33)

30. Al-samarkandi said: ["Ahl al Bayt" is a masculine word, that's why the verse switches from feminine to masculine when referring to "Ahl al Bayt".] Now this means that he considered the previous verses of tatheer which were referring to wives of prophet(saw) compatible with the masculine form because he didn’t say the tense changes because of inclusion of males in it or a group in which some males were present was being referred, rather he said the change in gender of tenses is because of the word Ahlebayt itself being Masculine. (tafsir bahrul ulum by al-samarkandi (d. 375 AH))

 

The Scholars who declared that the majority of scholars include wives of prophet(saw) in Ahlebayt

1. Imam Ibn katheer(rah) said: This is a clear statement that the wives of the Prophet are included among the members of his family (Ahl Al-Bayt) here, because they are the reason why this Ayah was revealed, and the scholars are unanimously agreed that they were the reason for revelation in this case, whether this was the only reason for revelation or there was also another reason, which is the correct view.(tafseer ibn katheer, for verse 33;33) So he’s saying either way, they are part of the reason for the verse to be revealed.

2. Imam sakhawi(rah):

وقال السخاوي في القول البديع في بيان صيغة الصلاة في التشهّد: فالمرجع أنّهم من حرمت عليهم الصدقة، وذكر أنّه اختيار الجمهور ونصّ الشافعي، وأنّ مذهب أحمد أنّهم أهل البيت، وقيل: المراد أزواجه وذرّيّته… (عن هامش الصواعق المحرقة لعبد الوهاب عبد اللطيف: 146 ط. مصر 1385 هـ ).

Al Sakhawi says in “Al Qawl al badee fee bayaan Seeghat al Salaat fee altashahud”: and the conclusion is that they are those for whom charity is forbidden, and it has been mentioned that this is the opinion of the majority, and this is related from Al Shaf’ee, and in the school of Ahmed bin Hanbal that those are the Ahl al Bayt, and it was said: what is meant are his wives and his descendents.

3. Imam Qastalani(rah):

وقال القسطلاني: ان الراجح أنّهم من حرمت عليهم الصدقة، كما نص عليه الشافعي واختاره الجمهور ويؤيده قوله صلّى الله عليه وسلّم للحسن بن عليّ: إنّا آل محمّد لا تحل لنا الصدقة، وقيل المراد بآل محمّد أزواجه وذرّيّته.

Al Qastalani said: the correct answer is that they are those for whom charity is forbidden, as was recorded by al Shaf’ee and what was selected by the majority and supported by what was said by al Hassan bin Ali: The family of Muhammad, charity is not permitted for us, and it was said that what is meant by the family of Muhammad are his wives and descendents. [Al Kashf wal Bayaan by Al Thaalabi]

 

Decisive proof:

Here we will be providing proofs from two great authorities of Tafseer ul  quran. Because their knowledge of Quran and their views takes precedence over the view of general scholars( if the view of general scholars is not backed by any authentic ahadees) if it contradicts the views of these two great scholars of tafseer.

1. Abdullah ibn Abbas(ra)

[Sahi bukhari 1.75:] Narrated Ibn `Abbas: Once the Prophet embraced me and said, “O Allah! Bestow on him the knowledge of the Book (Qur’an).

Now this same ibn abbas(ra) for whom prophet(saw) made dua, that he be granted knowledge of Quran believed that, the verse of tatheer was revealed for wives of prophet(saw).

عن ابن عباس : ?إنما يريد الله ليذهب عنكم الرجس أهل البيت ( [ الأحزاب : 33 ] . قال : نزلت في أزواج النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم خاصة .
الراوي: عكرمة المحدث: الذهبي – المصدر: سير أعلام النبلاء – لصفحة أو الرقم: 2/221
خلاصة حكم المحدث: إسناده صالح

Ibn Abbas RAA: “Allah intends only to remove from you the impurity [of sin], O people of the [Prophet's] household,” He said: It was revealed especially about the wives of the prophet PBUH.

Siyar A’alam al nubalaa
Rank: Good Isnad.

2.  Ikrima mawla ibn Abbas.

First let us make you aware of the praise of scholars regarding his knowledge of tafseer of quran.

Qatada said: “Most knowledgeable from people in halal and haram is Hasan, and most knowledgeable in rituals of haj Ata, and most knowledgeable in tafsir Ikrima”. (Juzz fihi zikri hal Ikrima mawla ibn Abbas” by  Hafidh Munziri.p 23, #25).

Jabir ibn Ziyad Abu Shatha said: “He is most knowledgeable of people”. (Juzz fihi zikri hal Ikrima mawla ibn Abbas” by  Hafidh Munziri.p 24, #26).

Salam ibn Miskin said: “Ikrima is most knowledgeable of people in tafsir”. (Juzz fihi zikri hal Ikrima mawla ibn Abbas” by  Hafidh Munziri.p 24).

Sufayn as-Sawri said: “Take tafsir from Ikrima, Saeed ibn Jubayr, Mujahid and Dahhak”.(Juzz fihi zikri hal Ikrima mawla ibn Abbas” by  Hafidh Munziri.p 25, #29).

Shabe said: “No one remained more knowledgeable in book of Allah, than Ikrima”. (Juzz fihi zikri hal Ikrima mawla ibn Abbas” by  Hafidh Munziri.p 22, #19).

Ibn Hajar in “Taqrib” (#4673) said: Thiqat, steady, a`lim bi tafsir,and it’s not proved that he was accused in lie by ibn Umar, and it’snot proved innovation from him”

Ibn Hibban mentioned him in “Thiqat” and said: “From scholars of his time in fiqh and tafsir”. (“Tahzib at-tahzib” 7/240)

Zirikli in “Alam” (4/244) said: “From most knowledgeable people in tafsir and magazi”.

Now this same master of tafseer of quran also viewed that the verse of tatheer was revealed for wives of prophet(Saw).

Ibn Jarir recorded that `Ikrimah used to call out in the marketplace:(Allah wishes only to remove Ar-Rijs from you, O members of the family, and to purify you with a thorough purification.(33:33)) “This was revealed solely concerning the wives of the Prophet.”(tafseer ibn katheer, for 33:33)

Aqil ibn Muhammad al-Jurjani informed us (through a verbal authorisation)> al-Mu‘afa ibn Zakariyya al-Qadi> Muhammad ibn Jarir> Ibn Humayd> Yahya ibn Wadih> al-Asbagh> ‘Alqamah> ‘Ikrimah who said, regarding the words of Allah, exalted is He (Allah’s wish is but to remove uncleanness far from you, O Folk of the Household): “This verse was not revealed about whom you think it was revealed. Rather, it is about the wives of the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace”. ‘Ikrimah used to proclaim this in the marketplace.

`Ikrimah said: Whoever disagrees with me that it was revealed solely concerning the wives of the Prophet , I am prepared to meet with him and pray and invoke the curse of Allah upon those who are lying.” (tafseer ibn katheer  for 33:33)


Article  by Ibn Ahmed Alhindi

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