Smashing the myth of taking Ahlul-bayt as the only conveyors of Islamic knowledge.

Smashing the myth of taking Ahlul-bayt as the only conveyors of Islamic knowledge.

In The Name of Allah, The Most Beneficent, The Most Merciful.

We often hear from misinformed Shi’ites that Ahlul-bayt were the most knowledgeable, therefore the correct Islamic knowledge must only be conveyed by Ahlul-bayt; Or they claim that the Imams from Ahlul-bayt were chosen by Allah and were infallible, so it is not possible for anyone other than these men to narrate a religious ruling since they are prone to error and prone to making mistakes, therefore Islamic knowledge must be acquired only through them. However, the reality is that these concepts or ideas were a much later innovation, and have no relation with the reality, because it is a well documented fact that, Prophet Muhammad(saw) allowed his Sahaba(companions) who acquired Islamic knowledge directly through him, to propagate the Islamic teachings to others. Moreover, Ahlul-bayt themselves took Islamic knowledge from fallible Muslims and were taught by fallible Muslims. Therefore, in order to clear these misconceptions, we have presented in this article few solid examples which demolishes the myth of taking Ahlul-bayt as the exclusive conveyors of Islamic knowledge to Muslim Ummah.

We have divided this article into the following parts:

(I). Prophetic narrations which invalidate the false concept that Islamic knowledge must be sought only through Ahlul-bayt.

(II). Few Facts from Islamic history, which demolish the Shi’ite myth of acquiring Islamic knowledge only through Ahlul-bayt.

(III). Few examples of the supposed infallible Imams acquiring the Islamic knowledge from fallible Muslims.

(IV). Weren’t the Imams from Ahlul-bayt taught by fallible teachers?

(V). The Mischief of Shi’ites.


(I). Prophetic narrations which invalidate the false concept that Islamic knowledge must be sought only through Ahlul-bayt.


حَدَّثَنَا ابْنُ أَبِي عُمَرَ، حَدَّثَنَا سُفْيَانُ، عَنْ عَبْدِ الْمَلِكِ بْنِ عُمَيْرٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ مَسْعُودٍ، يُحَدِّثُ عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏ “‏ نَضَّرَ اللَّهُ امْرَأً سَمِعَ مَقَالَتِي فَوَعَاهَا وَحَفِظَهَا وَبَلَّغَهَا فَرُبَّ حَامِلِ فِقْهٍ إِلَى مَنْ هُوَ أَفْقَهُ مِنْهُ ‏.‏ ثَلاَثٌ لاَ يُغَلُّ عَلَيْهِنَّ قَلْبُ مُسْلِمٍ إِخْلاَصُ الْعَمَلِ لِلَّهِ وَمُنَاصَحَةُ أَئِمَّةِ الْمُسْلِمِينَ وَلُزُومِ جَمَاعَتِهِمْ فَإِنَّ الدَّعْوَةَ تُحِيطُ مِنْ وَرَائِهِمْ

Prophet (saw) said: “May Allah beautify a man who hears a saying of mine, so he understands it, remembers it, and conveys it. Perhaps he carries the Fiqh to one who has more understanding than him. There are three with which the heart of a Muslim shall not be deceived. Sincerity in deeds for Allah, giving Nasihah(advice) to the A’immah(Imams) of Muslims, and sticking to the Jama’ah. For indeed the call is protected from behind them.”( Jami` at-Tirmidhi #2658 ; Grading: Sahih) ; [Similar report in Shia Book – Al-Kafi #1048 : al-Majlisi graded it as Muwathaq kal Sahih(Reliable like Sahih) in Miraat al-Uqool, vol 4, page 323].

Comment: From this hadeeth we learn that the responsibility of conveying the Islamic teachings from Prophet(saw) was not exclusively for Ahlul-bayt, but it was for the Sahaba in general.

2. Narrated ‘Abdullah bin ‘Amr: The Prophet said, “Convey (my teachings) to the people even if it were a single sentence, and tell others the stories of Bani Israel (which have been taught to you), for it is not sinful to do so. And whoever tells a lie on me intentionally, will surely take his place in the (Hell) Fire.”(sahih bukhari Volume 4, Book 56, Number 667).

Comment: From this hadeeth we learn that, the responsibility of conveying the teachings of Prophet(saw) was not exclusive to Ahlul-bayt, but it was for all the Sahaba in general. Had it been exclusive then Prophet(saw) would have directed this command to Ahul-bayt, whereas we find that this command was general.

3. Sahl bin Mu’adh bin Anas narrated from his father that: The Prophet(saw) said: “Whoever teaches some knowledge will have the reward of the one who acts upon it, without that detracting from his reward in the slightest.”(Sunan ibn Majah, Vol. 1, Book 1, Hadith 240; Grading: Hasan)

Comment: From this hadeeth we learn that, the honor of teaching knowledge was not restricted to Ahlul-bayt but it was for the Muslims in general.

4. Messenger of Allah(saw) said: “Whoever calls to guidance, then he receives the reward similar to the reward of whoever follows him, without that diminishing anything from their rewards. And whoever calls to misguidance, then he receives of sin similar to the sins of those who followed him, without that diminishing anything from their sins.”(Jami` at-Tirmidhi #2674 : Grading Sahih),

Comment: Again from this hadeeth we learn that, the honor of calling people to guidance was not restricted to Ahlul-bayt but it was for the Muslims in general.

5. Narrated `Abdullah: Allah’s Messenger (saw) said, “Do not wish to be like anyone, except in two cases: (1) A man whom Allah has given wealth and he spends it righteously. (2) A man whom Allah has given wisdom (knowledge of the Qur’an and the Hadith) and he acts according to it and teaches it to others.“(Sahih al-Bukhari #7141).

Comment: We learn from this hadeeth that the privilege of teaching Islamic knowledge was general for the Muslims whom Allah has given the wisdom.

6. Abu Musa reported Allah’s Apostle (saw) as saying: The similitude of that guidance and knowledge with which Allah, the Exalted and Glorious, has sent me is that of rain falling upon the earth. There is a good piece of land which receives the rainfall (eagerly) and as a result of it there is grown in it herbage and grass abundantly. Then there is a land hard and barren which retains water and the people derive benefit from it and they drink it and make the animals drink. Then there is another land which is barren. Neither water is retained in it, nor is the grass grown in it. And that is the similitude of the first one who develops the understanding of the religion of Allah and it becomes a source of benefit to him with which Allah sent me. (The second one is that) who acquires the knowledge of religion and imparts it to others. (Then the other type is) one who does not pay attention to (the revealed knowledge) and thus does not accept guidance of Allah with which I have been sent.( Sahih Muslim #2282)

Comment: We learn from this hadeeth that the privilege of conveying Islamic knowledge from Prophet(saw) was general for the Muslims especially the Sahaba.

7. Narrated Masriq: `Abdullah bin `Amr mentioned `Abdullah bin Masud and said, “I shall ever love that man, for I heard the Prophet (saw) saying, ‘Take (learn) the Qur’an from four: `Abdullah bin Masud, Salim, Mu`adh and Ubai bin Ka`b.’ “( Sahih al-Bukhari 4999)

Comment: From this hadeeth we find that Prophet(saw) didn’t restrict the learning of Quran through Ahlul-bayt.

8. Anas bin Malik narrated that: The Messenger of Allah said: The most merciful of my Ummah towards my Ummah is Abu Bakr; the one who adheres most sternly to the religion of Allah is ‘Umar; the most sincere of them in shyness and modesty is ‘Uthman; the best judge is ‘Ali bin Abu Talib; the best in reciting the Book of Allah is Ubayy bin Ka’b; the most knowledgeable of what is lawful and unlawful is Mu’adh bin Jabal; and the most knowledgeable of the rules of inheritance (Fara’id) is Zaid bin Thabit. And every nation has a trustworthy guardian, and the trustworthy guardian of this Ummah is Abu ‘Ubaidah bin Jarrah.”(Sunan Ibn Majah, Vol. 1, Book 1, Hadith 154 ; Grading: Sahih)

Comment: From this hadeeth we find that, Islamic knowledge was not exclusive for Ahlul-bayt, and some Sahaba who were fallible were the most knowledge in certain fields of Islamic knowledge.

9. Narrated ‘Ali bin Abi Talib that the Messenger of Allah(saw) said: “The best of you is he who learns the Qur’an and teaches it.”(Jami at-Tirmidhi, Book 45, Hadith 3157; Grading: Sahih)

Comment: We learn from this hadeeth that, teaching Quran was not exclusive to Ahlul-bayt, but was for the Muslims  in general, especially Sahaba.

10. Narrated Malik bin Huwairith: We went to the Prophet(saw) and we were all young men and stayed with him for about twenty nights. The Prophet(saw) was very merciful. He said, “When you return home, impart religious teachings to your families and tell them to offer perfectly such and such a prayer at such and such a time and such and such a prayer at such and such a time. And at the time of the prayer one of you should pronounce the Adhan and the oldest of you should lead the prayer.”(Sahih al-Bukhari #685).

Comment: We learn from this hadeeth that, the responsibility of conveying Islamic teachings was assigned to Sahaba in general,

11. Umar bin Abu Salama reported that he asked the Messenger of Allah (saw): Should one observing fast kiss (his wife)? The Messenger of Allah (saw) said to him: Ask her (Umm Salama). She informed him that the Messenger of Allah (saw) did that, where upon he said: Messenger of Allah, Allah pardoned thee all thy sins, the previous and the later ones. Upon this the Messenger of Allah (saw) said: By Allah, I am the most God conscious among you and I fear Him most among you.(Sahih Muslim #1108).

Comment: We learn from this hadeeth that, Prophet(saw) himself allowed his wives to convey Islamic rulings to other Sahaba.

12. In Shia book Via the three chains from al-Ridha(AS) from his forefathers: The Messenger of Allāh(SAWS) said: O Allah have mercy on my successors – thrice – it was said to him: and who are your successors? He said: those who come after me and transmit my narrations and my Sunnah teaching it to the people after me. (Uyun al-Akbar al-Ridha, vol 2, page 40, #31-94).

Comment: Guidance after the Nabuwwah is through the scholars, because the ruling and knowledge of every matter is already in the Quran and Sunnah.

13. We find in Shia hadeeth that Prophet(saw) asked his Wives to teach believing women the Islamic rulings.

علی بن إبراهیم. عن هارون بن مسلم، عن مسعدة بن زیاد، عن أبی عبدالله (علیه السلام) أن النبی (صلى الله علیه وآله) قال لبعض نسائه: مری نساء المؤمنین أن یستنجین بالماء ویبالغن فإنه مطهرة للحواشی ومذهبة للبواسیر
الفـروع من الكــافی
تألیف أبی جعفر محمد بن یعقوب بن اسحاق الكلینی الرازی
المتوفی فی سنة 328 / 329 ه
From Abi Abdullah (pbuh) that the prophet (pbuh and his family) told some of his wives: Order the women of the believers to clean themselves with water and to exagerate in it because it cleanses the surrounding areas and it makes the hemorrhoids disappear. [Shia book, Al Kafi]

This was considered an authentic quote by Shia scholar Al Majlisi:
12- (مجلسي صحيح13/58 )
عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ هَارُونَ بْنِ مُسْلِمٍ عَنْ مَسْعَدَةَ بْنِ زِيَادٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ( عليه السلام ) أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ ( صلى الله عليه وآله ) قَالَ لِبَعْضِ نِسَائِهِ مُرِي نِسَاءَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَنْ يَسْتَنْجِينَ بِالْمَاءِ وَ يُبَالِغْنَ فَإِنَّهُ مَطْهَرَةٌ لِلْحَوَاشِي وَ مَذْهَبَةٌ لِلْبَوَاسِيرِ .

We also read in Shia books:

و لا یخفى ما فیه فإنه لیس فی الخبر دلالة على ان الغسلة الثانیة لازالة شی‏ء فی المحل یعبر عنه بالأثر، بل الظاهر منه لیس الا وجوب غسل المحل بعد ازالة العین عنه و انه یحصل به الإنقاء أی طهارة المحل.و یستدل له أیضا بالخبر العامی النبوی، و فیه: قال صلّى اللّه علیه و آله و سلّم لعائشة: «مری نساء المدینة یستنجین بالماء و یبالغن فإنه مطهرة للحواشی» بتقریب ان فی قوله صلّى اللّه علیه و آله و سلّم‏«یبالغن» مع التعلیل دلالة أو اشعارا بلزوم إزالة الأثر (و الانصاف) وهن هذه الدعوى أیضا، حیث لا دلالة و لا إشعار فی قوله صلّى اللّه علیه و آله و سلّم: «یبالغن» و لا فی التعلیل بان فی المبالغة فی التطهیر یحصل طهر الحواشی على لزوم إزالة الأثر، فالحق انه لیس لإثبات الفرق المذكور دلیل سوى دعوى مثل الشیخ الأكبر (قده) الاتفاق علیه.
مصباح الهدى فی شرح العروة الوثقى، ج‏3
المؤلف: الآملی، المیرزا محمد تقی‏
تاریخ وفاة المؤلف: 1391 ه ق‏
تاریخ الطبع: 1380 ه ق‏
الطبعة: الأولى‏
مكان الطبع: طهران- إیران‏
الأمر الثانی عشر انهم قد فرقوا بین الغسل بالماء و بین المسح بالأحجار
ص: 51 – ص: 52

و یشیر إلیه أیضا قول النبی (صلى الله علیه و آله) «3» لعائشة: «مری نساء المدینة یستنجین بالماء. و یبالغن، فإنه مطهرة للحواشی» فإن قوله (صلى الله علیه و آله) و یبالغن مع التعلیل مشعر بذلك، أو یقال انا لا نلتزم طهارة تلك الأجزاء حال المسح بالأحجار، بل نقول: انه معفو عنها و عما یلاقیها مما یكون فی اجتنابه عسر ما دامت على المحل، أما لو ارتفع ذلك فإنها تنجس ما یلاقیها، و لا ینافی ما ذكرنا من التحدید بزوال العین ما وقع لبعضهم من التحدید بالنقاء كالخبر، لما عرفت من أن النقاء فی كل شی‏ء بحسبه، كما سمعت ذلك فی الروایة، فالنقاء حینئذ متحد المعنى، لكن مختلف بالنسبة إلى ما یحصل به، فان نقاء كل شی‏ء بحسب حاله.جواهر الكلام فی شرح شرائع الإسلام، ج‏2 شیخ الفقهاء و إمام المحققین محمد حسن بن الشیخ باقر بن الشیخ عبد الرحیم النجفی( ت 1266 ه) الناشر: دار إحیاء التراث العربی‏ الطبعة: السابعة مكان الطبع: بیروت- لبنان‏ المحقق / المصحح: الشیخ عباس القوچانی‏ [فی وجوب إزالة الغائط بالماء تخییرا] ص: 26 – ص: 27

These quotes are from shia books of jurisprudence, quoting the Prophet (pbuh) telling Aisha(as) to “Command the women of Medina to use water to clean their private parts and to exaggerate in the quantity used because it purifies the surrounding areas as well”. The first quote is by “Al Amali” and the second by “al Najafi”.

Comment: We find that Prophet(Saw) commanded his wives(esp. Ayesha) to teach women Islamic rulings. Though wives of Prophet(saw) are themselves from Ahlul-bayt, but since Shias don’t believe so, therefore their own hadeeth destroys their false concept of restricting Ahlul-bayt as the conveyers of Islamic knowledge.


(II). Few Facts from Islamic history, which demolish the Shi’ite myth of acquiring Islamic knowledge only through Ahlul-bayt.

The Messenger of Allah(saw) who was the most caring and devout to the Message of Allah, he did not rely solely on his Ahlul-bayt in conveying the religion or Islamic teachings to the people. Sahaba also played a major role in conveying the Islamic teachings to people. Here are few famous examples:

Example #1: The seventy Sahaba sent to teach people Quran and Sunnah.

It has been reported on the authority of Anas b. Malik that some people came to the Messenger of Allah (saw) and said to him: Send with us some men who may teach us the Qur’an and the Sunnah. Accordingly, he sent seventy men from the Ansar. They were called the Reciters and among them was my maternal uncle. Haram. They used to recite the Qur’an, discuss and ponder over its meaning at night. In the day they brought water and poured it (in pitchers) in the mosque, collected wood and sold it, and with the sale proceeds bought food for the people of the Suffa and the needy.(Sahih Muslim Book 20, Hadith 4682)

Comment: If the Shia myth had a grain of truth in it, then Prophet(saw) wouldn’t have sent 70 Sahaba to teach Quran and Sunnah, but would have sent only Ali(ra) for this job.

Example #2: Mus’ab ibn Umair(ra) was sent to teach the people of Al-Madinah.

Mus’ab ibn ‘Umair(ra) was commissioned by Prophet Muhammad(saw) with the greatest mission of his life, which was to be his envoy to Al-Madinah. His mission was to instruct the Ansar who believed in the Prophet and had pledged their allegiance to him at ‘Aqabah, to call others to Islam, and to prepare Al-Madinah for the day of the great Hijrah. If the myth that knowledge could only be attain was true, then Prophet(saw) would have sent Ali(ra) as his envoy to instruct Ansar.

We read in Seerah ibn Hisham:

When these men left, the apostle sent with them Mus’ab b. Umayr b. Hashim b. `Abdu Manaf and instructed him to read the Quran to them and to teach them Islam and to give them instruction about religion. In Medina Mus’ab was called ‘The Reader’; he lodged with As’ad b. Zurafa.(Seerah ibn Hisham, page 175).

Similar can be read in Shia book, “Musab al-Khair” of Kamal al-Sayyid. {See screen shot}

Comment: If the Shia myth had a grain of truth in it, then Prophet(saw) wouldn’t have sent a fallible Sahabi Mus’ab ibn Umair(ra) to teach Quran and Islam to Ansar, but would have sent only Ali(ra) for this job.

Example #3: Muadh ibn Jabal(ra) was sent to Yemen to teach people Quran and Islam.

After the liberation of Makkah, the Quraysh became Muslims en masse. The Prophet immediately saw the need of the new Muslims for teachers to instruct them in the fundamentals of Islam and to make them truly understand the spirit and letter of its laws. He appointed Attab ibn Usay as his deputy in Makkah and he asked Muadh ibn Jabal to stay with him and teach people the Qur’an and instruct them in the religion. Sometime after the Prophet had returned to Madinah, messengers of the kings of Yemen came to him announcing that they and the people of Yemen had become Muslims. They requested that some teachers should be with them to teach Islam to the people. For this task the Prophet commissioned a group of competent du’at (missionaries) and made Muadh ibn Jabal their Ameer. If the myth that knowledge could only be attain was true, then Prophet(saw) would have sent Ali(ra) to teach Islam to the people of Yemen.

Similarly we read in Bukhari:

Narrated Ibn `Abbas: The Prophet(saw) sent Mu`adh to Yemen and said, “Invite the people to testify that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and I am Allah’s Messenger(saw), and if they obey you to do so, then teach them that Allah has enjoined on them five prayers in every day and night (in twenty-four hours), and if they obey you to do so, then teach them that Allah has made it obligatory for them to pay the Zakat from their property and it is to be taken from the wealthy among them and given to the poor.”(Sahih al-Bukhari #1395).

Comment: If the Shia myth had a grain of truth in it, then Prophet(saw) wouldn’t have sent a fallible Sahabi Muadh ibn Jabal(ra) but would have sent only sent Ali(ra) for this job.

Example #4: Abu ‘Ubaidah Bin Al-Jarrah(ra) was sent to Yemen to teach Quran and Sunnah.

When the Najraan delegation arrived from Yemen after they had embraced Islam, they asked the Prophet to send someone to them to teach them the Qur’aan, the Sunnah, and Islam. The Prophet told them, “I will send you a trustworthy man, a very trustworthy man. When the Companions heard this praise, every one of them prayed that the Prophet meant him with this praise and sincere recommendation. He then sent Abu Ubaidah bin Al-Jarrah(ra).

Similarly we read in Sahih Muslim:

Anas reported that the people of Yemen came to Allah’s Messenger (saw) and said: Send with us a person who should teach us Sunnah and al-Islam, whereupon he (the Holy Prophet) caught hold of the hand of Ubaida and said: He is a man of trust of this Umma.(Sahih Muslim Book 31, Hadith 5948).

Comment: If the Shia myth had a grain of truth in it, then Prophet(saw) wouldn’t have sent a fallible Sahabi Abu Ubaidah ibn Jarrah(ra) but would have sent only sent Ali(ra) for this job.

Example #5: The ‘Katibin e Wahi’(scribes of the revelation) were fallible Sahaba.

The Sahaba who were scribes of the revelation(Wahi) are known as ‘Katibin e Wahi’. The scribes of the revelation from amongst the companions of the Prophet(saw) are said to be 40 plus in number.

Following are the names of the Sahaba who were the Scribes of Revelation as mentioned by Shaykh Abdul Haq Muhaddith Dahlavi:

(1) Sayyiduna Abu Bakr al Siddiq.(2) Sayyiduna Umar bin Khattab al Faruq.(3) Sayyiduna Uthman bin Affan Zul Nurayn.(4) Sayyiduna Ali bin Abu Talib al Murtaza.(5) Sayyiduna Talha bin Ubaydullah.(6) Sayyiduna Zubayr bin al Awam.(7) Sayyiduna Sa’ad bin Abi Waqqas.(8.) Sayyiduna Amir bin Fuhayrah.(9) Sayyiduna Sabit bin Qays.(10) Sayyiduna Khalid bin Saeed bin Al Aas.(11) Sayyiduna Abbas bin Saeed bin Al Aas.(12) Sayyiduna Hanzala bin al Rubay.(13) Sayyiduna Abu Sufyan Saqhr bin Harb.(14) Sayyiduna Yazid bin Abu Sufyan.(15) Sayyiduna Mu’awiya bin Abu Sufyan.(16) Sayyiduna Zayd bin Thabit.(17) Sayyiduna Shurjeel bin Hasana.(18.) Sayyiduna Alaa’ Hazrami.(19) Sayyiduna Khalid bin Waleed.(20) Sayyiduna Muhammad bin Maslan Ansari.(21) Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Rawaha Ansari.(22) Sayyiduna Mughayrah bin Shu’ba.(23) Sayyiduna Amr bin al Aas bin Wayif Qarashi.(24) Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Abdullah bin Ubay bin Salul.(25) Sayyiduna Jahm bin Sa’ad Aslami.(26) Sayyiduna Juhaym bin al Sallat.(27) Sayyiduna Arqam bin Abi Arqam Makhzumi.(28.) Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Zayd Ansari Khazraji.(29) Sayyiduna Ala’a bin Uqba.(30) Sayyiduna Abu Ayyub Ansari.(31) Sayyiduna Huzayfa bin al Yaman.(32) Sayyiduna Buraydah bin al Husayb Mazni.(33) Sayyiduna Hussayn bin Namayr bin Fatik.(34) Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Ubay Sarh.(35) Sayyiduna Abu Salma bin Abd al Asad Qarashi.(36) Sayyiduna Huwaytib bin Abdul Uzza’.(37) Sayyiduna Hatib bin Amr.(38.) Sayyiduna Ibn Khatal.(39) Sayyiduna Ubay bin Ka’ab.(40) Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Arqam Qarashi.(41) Sayyiduna Sayyiduna Mu’ayqeeb bin Abi Fatima. {Source: Madarij al Nubuwwah; 2:530-560, Munshi Nawal Kishore Edition,Lukhnow}

Likewise, Imam Ibn Abd al Bar Maliki {368-463 A.H} states:

“ Ubay bin Ka’ab is from the Scribes of the Revelation of the Holy Quran of RasulAllah. He preceded Zayd bin Thabit and also used to write along with him the Revelation {‘Wahi’}. Through, amongst the Sahaba, Zayd bin Sabit was the one who has done this writing of Revelation {‘Wahi’} most {He was the one who was specially appointed for this work}.

Muhammad bin Sa’ad narrated from Waqidi that at the time of the migration of the Prophet towards Madinah, Ubay bin Ka’ab was the First Scribe of Revelation {‘Wahi’}. When he would not be present, the Prophet used to call Zayd bin Thabit. These two persons used to write the Revelation {‘Wahi’} for the Prophet apart from writing Letters, Commandments, etcetera. {Al Isti’ab fi Marifat al Ashab; Zikr Ubay bin Ka’ab; 1:27}

Comment: If the Shia myth had a grain of truth in it, then Prophet(saw) wouldn’t have appointed fallible Sahaba to be the scribes of revelation, and instead would have exclusively appointed Ali(ra) for this job.

Although there are many other examples which demolish the Shia myth, that Islamic teachings must only be acquired through Ahlul-bayt, but we believe these historical facts are sufficient to prove the incorrectness of those Shias, who hold this false belief.


(III). Few examples of the supposed infallible Imams acquiring the Islamic knowledge from fallible Muslims.

Example #1: Ali(ra) acquired knowledge from Abu bakr(ra).

حَدَّثَنَا مُسَدَّدٌ، حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو عَوَانَةَ، عَنْ عُثْمَانَ بْنِ الْمُغِيرَةِ الثَّقَفِيِّ، عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ رَبِيعَةَ الأَسَدِيِّ، عَنْ أَسْمَاءَ بْنِ الْحَكَمِ الْفَزَارِيِّ، قَالَ سَمِعْتُ عَلِيًّا، – رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ – يَقُولُ كُنْتُ رَجُلاً إِذَا سَمِعْتُ مِنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم حَدِيثًا نَفَعَنِي اللَّهُ مِنْهُ بِمَا شَاءَ أَنْ يَنْفَعَنِي وَإِذَا حَدَّثَنِي أَحَدٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِهِ اسْتَحْلَفْتُهُ فَإِذَا حَلَفَ لِي صَدَّقْتُهُ قَالَ وَحَدَّثَنِي أَبُو بَكْرٍ وَصَدَقَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ – رضى الله عنه – أَنَّهُ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَقُولُ ‏”‏ مَا مِنْ عَبْدٍ يُذْنِبُ ذَنْبًا فَيُحْسِنُ الطُّهُورَ ثُمَّ يَقُومُ فَيُصَلِّي رَكْعَتَيْنِ ثُمَّ يَسْتَغْفِرُ اللَّهَ إِلاَّ غَفَرَ اللَّهُ لَهُ ‏”‏ ‏.‏ ثُمَّ قَرَأَ هَذِهِ الآيَةَ ‏{‏ وَالَّذِينَ إِذَا فَعَلُوا فَاحِشَةً أَوْ ظَلَمُوا أَنْفُسَهُمْ ذَكَرُوا اللَّهَ ‏}‏ إِلَى آخِرِ الآيَةِ ‏.

Asma’ bint al-Hakam said: I heard Ali say: I was a man; when I heard a tradition from the Messenger of Allah(saw), Allah benefited me with it as much as He willed. But when some one of his companions narrated a tradition to me I adjured him. When he took an oath, I testified him. AbuBakr narrated to me a tradition, and AbuBakr narrated truthfully. He said: I heard the apostle of Allah (saw) saying: When a servant (of Allah) commits a sin, and he performs ablution well, and then stands and prays two rak’ahs, and asks pardon of Allah, Allah pardons him. He then recited this verse: “And those who, when they commit indecency or wrong their souls, remember Allah” (Al-Qur’an 3:135). (Sunan Abi Dawud #1521; Grading: Sahih).

Comment: This report proves that, Ali(ra) not only acquired Islamic knowledge from Abu Bakr(ra), but he used to even take knowledge from Sahaba(ra) in general. And we will come to know about this is a more clear manner from the later examples.

Example #2: Ali(ra) attained Islamic knowledge through Miqdad(ra).

Narrated `Ali: I used to get the emotional urethral discharge frequently so I requested Al−Miqdad to ask the Prophet about it. Al−Miqdad asked him and he replied, “One has to perform ablution (after it).”( Sahi bukhari 1.134)

Comment: We learn from this hadeeth that, Ali(ra) acquired Islamic ruling through the fallible Sahabi Miqdad(ra).

This incident is authentically reported even in Shia books:

[731] ـ وبإسناده عن الحسين بن سعيد، عن صفوان، عن إسحاق بن عمار، عن أبي عبدالله (عليه السلام)، قال: سألته عن المذي؟ فقال: إن عليا (عليه السلام) كان رجلا مذاء، فاستحيى أن يسأل رسول الله (صلى الله عليه وآله) لمكان فاطمة ( عليها السلام )، فأمر المقداد أن يسأله وهو جالس، فسأله، فقال له النبي (صلى الله عليه وآله): ليس بشيء.

[733] ـ وعن الحسين بن سعيد، عن محمد بن إسماعيل، عن أبي الحسن (عليه السلام)، قال: سألته عن المذي؟ فأمرني بالوضوء منه، ثم أعدت عليه سنة أخرى، فأمرني بالوضوء منه، وقال: إن عليا (عليه السلام) أمر المقداد أن يسأل رسول الله (صلى الله عليه وآله) واستحيى أن يسأله، فقال: فيه الوضوء: قلت: وإن لم أتوضأ، قال: لا بأس.

(Wasael ash shia)

وعن اسحاق بن عمار في الصحيح عن الصادق (عليه السلام) قال: ” سألته عن المذي فقال ان عليا (عليه السلام) كان رجلا مذاء واستحيى ان يسأل رسول الله (صلى الله عليه وآله) لمكان فاطمة (عليها السلام) فامر المقداد ان يسأله وهو جالس فسأله فقال له ليس بشئ “.(source)

Example #3: Hassan bin Ali(ra) acquired Islamic knowledge from Ibn Abbas(ra).

أَخْبَرَنَا قُتَيْبَةُ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا حَمَّادٌ، عَنْ أَيُّوبَ، عَنْ مُحَمَّدٍ، أَنَّ جَنَازَةً، مَرَّتْ بِالْحَسَنِ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ وَابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ فَقَامَ الْحَسَنُ وَلَمْ يَقُمِ ابْنُ عَبَّاسٍ فَقَالَ الْحَسَنُ أَلَيْسَ قَدْ قَامَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم لِجَنَازَةِ يَهُودِيٍّ قَالَ ابْنُ عَبَّاسٍ نَعَمْ ثُمَّ جَلَسَ ‏.‏
It is narrated from Muhammad ibn Sirin that once a funeral passed by Hasan ibn Ali (ra) and Ibn Abbas (ra), so Hasan stood up but Ibn Abbas didn’t. Hasan said : Didn’t the Prophet(saw) stand for the funeral of a Jew? Ibn Abbas said : Yes, but afterwards (in the later funerals) he would keep sitting (this sunnah abrogated the previous one). (Sunan an-Nasa’i #1924; Grading: Sahih).

Comment: From this hadeeth we learn that, Hassan(ra) was informed by Ibn Abbas(ra) about the ruling which abrogated the previous ruling, regarding which Hassan(ra) wasn’t aware.

Example #4: Ali ibn Hussain(rah) acquired knowledge from Zaid bin Aslam(servant of Umar[ra]).

حَدَّثَنَا أَحْمَدُ بْنُ يُونُسَ، حَدَّثَنَا عَاصِمُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنِي وَاقِدُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنِي سَعِيدٌ ابْنُ مَرْجَانَةَ، صَاحِبُ عَلِيِّ بْنِ حُسَيْنٍ قَالَ لِي أَبُو هُرَيْرَةَ ـ رضى الله عنه ـ قَالَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ “‏ أَيُّمَا رَجُلٍ أَعْتَقَ امْرَأً مُسْلِمًا اسْتَنْقَذَ اللَّهُ بِكُلِّ عُضْوٍ مِنْهُ عُضْوًا مِنْهُ مِنَ النَّارِ ‏”‏‏.‏ قَالَ سَعِيدٌ ابْنُ مَرْجَانَةَ فَانْطَلَقْتُ إِلَى عَلِيِّ بْنِ حُسَيْنٍ فَعَمَدَ عَلِيُّ بْنُ حُسَيْنٍ ـ رضى الله عنهما ـ إِلَى عَبْدٍ لَهُ قَدْ أَعْطَاهُ بِهِ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ جَعْفَرٍ عَشَرَةَ آلاَفِ دِرْهَمٍ ـ أَوْ أَلْفَ دِينَارٍ ـ فَأَعْتَقَهُ‏.‏

Narrated Abu Huraira: The Prophet (saw) said, “Whoever frees a Muslim slave, Allah will save all the parts of his body from the (Hell) Fire as he has freed the body-parts of the slave.” Sa`id bin Marjana said that he narrated that Hadith to `Ali bin Al-Husain and he freed his slave for whom `Abdullah bin Ja`far had offered him ten thousand Dirhams or one-thousand Dinars. (Sahih al-Bukhari #2517).

Comment: We find that when the hadeeth of Abu Huraira(ra) was narrated to Ali ibn Hussain(Zain al Abideen), he acted on that hadeeth by freeing his slave.

Imam Dhahabi records some reports according to which, Ali ibn Hussain(rah), also known as Zain al-`Abideen, used to sit in the majlis of Zaid bin Aslam. So once Nafe’ bin Jubayr said to him,”You are Sayyid and you are sitting in the majlis of a slave.” to which he replied, ”knowledge is to be taken, no matter from where it comes”. Siyar (4/388).

Example #5: Muhammad ibn Ali(al-Baqir) acquired knowledge from Jabir bin Abdullah(ra).

Ja’far bin Muhammad reported on the authority of his father: We went to Jabir bin Abdullah and he began inquiring about the people (who had gone to see him) till it was my turn. I said: I am Muhammad bin ‘Ali bin Husain. He placed his hand upon my head and opened my upper button and then the lower one and then placed his palm on my chest (in order to bless me), and I was, during those days, a young boy, and he said: You are welcome, my nephew. Ask whatever you want to ask. And I asked him but as he was blind (he could not respond to me immediately), and the time for prayer came. He stood up covering himself in his mantle. And whenever he placed its ends upon his shoulders they slipped down on account of being short (in size). Another mantle was, however, lying on the clothes rack near by. And he led us in the prayer. I said to him: Tell me about the Hajj of Allah’s Messenger(saw). [Sahih Muslim, Book 7, Hadith 2803].

Example #6: Imam Mohammad al-Baqir “Fifth Shia Imam” in a Shia book, related the Fatwa of Abdullah ibn Umar(ra) :

قرب الإسناد ابن طريف عن ابن علوان عن الصادق عن أبيه ع أنه كانت له أم ولد فأصابها عطاش في شهر رمضان- و هي حامل فسئل ابن عمر عن ذلك فقال- مروها فلتفطر و تصدق مكان كل يوم بمد من طعام
2883 – 2882 – 2891 – الحسن بن ظريف: بن ناصح – من أصحاب الهادي (ع) ثقة
3500 – 3499 – 3508 – الحسين بن علوان: الكلبي عامي – ثقة
Qurb al-Isnad by `Abdullah ibn Ja`far al-Humeiri al-Qummi: al-Hassan ibn Tharif from al-Hussein ibn `Alwan from Ja`far al-Sadiq (as) from his father (as): That he had Umm Walad, and she was struck by thirst during Ramadan while pregnant, so ibn `Umar was asked about this and he said: “Order her to break her fast, and to give Sadaqah for each day missed and to feed the poor. [Bihar al-Anwar vol 93, page 199 ; Qurb al-Isnaad page 89, #298].

Example #7: Imam Mohammad al-Baqir “Fifth Shia Imam” said nobody was more knowledgeable than Ata in matters pertaining to Hajj.

Aslam Al-Minqari and Abd Rabih bin Sa’id both narrated that Abu Ja’afar Mohammad Al-Baqir said: There is nobody that gives religious rulings about the Hajj that is more knowledgeable than Ataa'(bin Abi Rabah).

[- Tareekh Ibn Abi Khaythama ]تاريخ المكيين لابن ابي خيثمة

Example #8: Ali(ra) himself advised people to acquire Islamic knowledge from fallible Sahaba.

Ali(ra) refers the believers to Aisha (ra)

حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الْأَعْلَى بْنُ عَبْدِ الْأَعْلَى ، عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ إِسْحَاقَ ، عَنْ يَزِيدَ بْنِ أَبِي حَبِيبٍ ، عَنْ مَعْمَرِ بْنِ أَبِي حَبِيبَةَ مَوْلَى ابْنَةِ صَفْوَانَ ، عَنْ عُبَيْدِ بْنِ رِفَاعَةَ بْنِ رَافِعٍ ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ رِفَاعَةَ بْنِ رَافِعٍ ، قَالَ : بَيْنَا أَنَا عِنْدَ عُمَرَ بْنِ الْخَطَّابِ إِذْ دَخَلَ عَلَيْهِ رَجُلٌ فَقَالَ : يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ، هَذَا زَيْدُ بْنُ ثَابِتٍ يُفْتِي النَّاسَ فِي الْمَسْجِدِ بِرَأْيِهِ فِي الْغُسْلِ مِنَ الْجَنَابَةِ . فَقَالَ عُمَرُ : عَلَيَّ بِهِ . فَجَاءَ زَيْدٌ فَلَمَّا رَآهُ عُمَرُ قَالَ : أَيْ عَدُوَّ نَفْسِهِ ، قَدْ بَلَغْتَ أَنْ تُفْتِيَ النَّاسَ بِرَأْيِكَ ؟ فَقَالَ : يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ، بِاللَّهِ مَا فَعَلْتُ لَكِنِّي سَمِعْتُ مِنْ أَعْمَامِي حَدِيثًا فَحَدَّثْتُ بِهِ مِنْ أَبِي أَيُّوبَ وَمِنْ أُبَيِّ بْنِ كَعْبٍ وَمِنْ رِفَاعَةَ ، فَأَقْبَلَ عُمَرُ عَلَى رِفَاعَةَ بْنِ رَافِعٍ فَقَالَ : وَقَدْ كُنْتُمْ تَفْعَلُونَ ذَلِكَ إِذَا أَصَابَ أَحَدُكُمْ مِنَ الْمَرْأَةِ ” فَأَكْسَلَ لَمْ يَغْتَسِلْ ” ؟ فَقَالَ : قَدْ كُنَّا نَفْعَلُ ذَلِكَ عَلَى عَهْدِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَلَمْ يَأْتِنَا مِنَ اللَّهِ فِيهِ تَحْرِيمٌ وَلَمْ يَكُنْ مِنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فِيهِ نَهْيٌ , قَالَ : وَرَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَعْلَمُ ذَاكَ ؟ قَالَ : لَا أَدْرِي . فَأَمَرَ عُمَرُ بِجَمْعِ الْمُهَاجِرِينَ وَالْأَنْصَارِ فَجُمِعُوا لَهُ فَشَاوَرَهُمْ فَأَشَارَ النَّاسُ ” أَنْ لَا غُسْلَ فِي ذَلِكَ إِلَّا مَا كَانَ مِنْ مُعَاذٍ وَعَلِيٍّ فَإِنَّهُمَا قَالَا : إِذَا جَاوَزَ الْخِتَانُ الْخِتَانَ فَقَدْ وَجَبَ الْغُسْلُ ” , فَقَالَ عُمَرُ : هَذَا وَأَنْتُمْ أَصْحَابُ بَدْرٍ قَدِ اخْتَلَفْتُمْ فَمَنْ بَعْدَكُمْ أَشَدُّ اخْتِلَافًا , قَالَ : فَقَالَ عَلِيٌّ : يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ إِنَّهُ لَيْسَ أَحَدٌ أَعْلَمَ بِهَذَا مِنْ شَأْنِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ مِنْ أَزْوَاجِهِ , فَأَرْسَلَ إِلَى حَفْصَةَ فَقَالَتْ : لَا عِلْمَ لِي بِهَذَا فَأَرْسَلَ إِلَى عَائِشَةَ فَقَالَتْ : ” إِذَا جَاوَزَ الْخِتَانُ الْخِتَانَ فَقَدْ وَجَبَ الْغُسْلُ ” , فَقَالَ عُمَرُ : ” لَا أَسْمَعُ بِرَجُلٍ فَعَلَ ذَلِكَ إِلَّا أَوْجَعْتُهُ ضَرْبًا ” .

[`Ubayd bin Rifa`ah ibn Rafi`, from his father Rifa`ah bin Rafi`, that he said: While I was with `Umar bin al-Khattab, a man entered on him and said: “O Ameer al-Mu’mineen! Zayd bin Thabit is in the mosque giving the people religious Fatwas from his own opinion regarding Ghusl from Janabah.” `Umar said:”Bring him to me.” When Zayd came `Umar saw him and said: “You are an enemy of your own self! Now you’re giving people Fatwas based on your own opinions!?” Zayd replied: “O Ameer al-Mu’mineen, by Allah I did not, I only heard a Hadith from my uncles and I repeated it. From Abu Ayyub and Ubay ibn Ka`b and Rifa`ah.” So `Umar went to Rifa`ah ibn Rafi` and said: “You used to do this with your women?” He replied: “We did it in the time of the messenger (SAWS) and it did not reach us that Allah or his Prophet (SAWS) forbade it.” `Umar said: “Did the Prophet (SAWS) know about this?” He said: “I don’t know.”`Umar ordered al-Muhajirun and al-Ansar to gather and he consulted them, so they agreed that Ghusl was not obligatory except for Mu`adh and `Ali who both said: “When the circumcised part passes the circumcised part Ghusl is obligatory.” so `Umar said: “If you O righteous people of Badr have differed, then who shall I ask?” `Ali said: “O Ameer al-Mu’mineen, there is no one more knowledgeable about these matters regarding the Prophet (SAWS) than his wives.” `Umar then sent after (his daughter) Hafsa and asked, she said: “I have no knowledge of this.” then he sent after `Aisha and she said: “When the circumcised part passes the circumcised part Ghusl is obligatory.” after this `Umar would say: “If I ever hear of a man doing it, I shall make his punishment severe.”]

(Sources: Musannaf ibn abi Shaybah, Sharh Ma`ani al-Athar lil-Tahawi, al-Mu`jam al-Kabeer lil-Tabarani. Grading: Hasan bi Majmu` Turuqih.)

Comment:`Ali (ra) says that those with most knowledge in certain matters are the mothers of believers(i.e Wives of Prophet).

Example #9: al-Jafar(RA) states that scholars of Ahlalbayt are not always more knowledgeable than others and others have knowledge which they don’t have.

Ma’amar said: Ayoub said to me when we were here: Let us go to Ja’far bin Mohammad, for I’ve heard that he tells the people to not leave from the gathering (Muzdalifa) until the sunrise. Ma’amar said: So I went with Ayoub until we arrived at his tent. Around him were some Alawis that he was speaking to. When he saw Ayoub, he stood up from his tent and hugged Ayoub, then held his hand and took him to another tent. Ma’amar said: He (Ja’far) didn’t want to sit him (Ayoub) with them. He called for a plate of dates and he’d give them to Ayoub with his hand. He then said: Send a plate to them, for if we do they’ll leave us, and if we don’t they’ll speak ill of us. Ayoub then said: What is this that I hear of you? He (Ja’far) said: What did you hear about me? I was told that you tell people to not leave from the gathering until the sunrise. He said: “Praise be to Allah! That goes against the Sunnah of the Messenger ﷺ. My father narrated from Jabir bin Abdullah that the Prophet ﷺ left from the gathering before the sunrise. but people attribute to us and narrate from us what we do not say! They claim that we have knowledge that is not with the people! By Allah, some people have knowledge that we don’t have! However, we have rights and a kinship…” He then mentioned their rights and kinship until I saw tears flow from Ayoub. [Sunan al-Kubra by al-Bayhaqi, vol 5, page 203, #9520].

Comment: – This authentic report shows the rejection of the doctrine of infallibility – an admission that scholars of Ahlalbayt are not always more knowledgeable than others. – the report about leaving after the sunrise can be found in Shia books like Tahdheeb al-Ahkam 5/1100 – false attributions to Ja’far are very early and are not limited to ideological matters but include minute fiqhi details – the importance of holding onto the Sunnah.


These Prophetic narrations, historical fact and reports from Ahlul-bayt, destroy the Shia myth of acquiring knowledge only through Ahul-bayt or the myth of restricting Ahlul-bayt has the exclusive conveyers of Islamic knowledge. These established facts, even shatter the false and incorrect philosophical claims made by Shias using the Munkar(denounced) and fabricated reports like “Ana Madinatul Ilm Wa Ali-yun Babuha(I am the city of knowledge and Ali is its gate/door)” as they claim that, since Ali(ra) is the door or gate, then knowledge should must only be acquired from Ali(ra), and anyone who doesn’t do that, is a thief, because he is not reaching the city of knowledge through the door. Although this report have been declared as fabrication and Munkar(denouced) by authoritative scholars of Ahl us-sunnah{see here} , yet the Shias keep using it to misguide the lay Muslims. However, as the readers can judge, these silly philosophical arguments are contrary to many authentic Prophetic narrations and other established facts, which further strengthen the views of those Sunni scholars who declared the hadeeth of “Bab-e-Madinatul Ilm” as Munkar. Infact, the authentic hadeeth about the door/shield was regarding Umar bin khattab(ra), who was called as the door between Fitan(afflictions) and Ummah. Refer Sahih al-Bukhari #3586. And also these facts disapprove and reject the incorrect connotations and misinterpretations given to “Hadeeth al-Thaqalayn“, as it was actually about caring Ahlulbayt.

The knowledge of some Imams from Ahlulbayt:

Many Sunni scholars reported hadith, tafseer and fiqh from Imam Jafar and Imam Baqir. However, unlike the four Imams of madhabs of Ahlul Sunnah, the Imams of Ahlul Bayt were victim to oppression from government , as well as oppression from people who lied on them and fabricated reports under their name. Their opinions of fiqh did not get the proper circumstances and proper followers to be manifested into a known madhab as did the others. Other known scholars of their time also suffered the same negligence from people such as Al-Layth ibn Saad, Al-Shabi, Al-Zuhri, Ibn Abi Layla, Al-Thawri, Al-Awzai etc. Another reason is the degree of knowledge of one scholar over the other. Al-Zuhri -rahimahu Allah- was renown for his knowledge of Sunna and he was more knowledgeable than Muhammad Al-Baqir -rahimahu Allah-. There is no reason whatsover to only adhere to Al-Baqir and neglect seeking Sunnah from Al-Zuhri. If this was done, vast knowledge of Sunnah would have been lost. Also, Imam Malik, Al-Shafi and Ahmad Ibn Hanbal were more knowledgeable than Musa Al-Khadim and Ali Al-Ridha in Sunnah. If people would adhere to Musa Al-Khadim and Ali Al-Ridha only and ignore other scholars of their time, then vast amounts of knowledge would have been lost.

Sunni Imam Al-Shafi  is famous for the couplet about his love for Ahlul Bayt. Had Musa AL-Khadim been more knowldgeable than Malik , Al-Shafi would have been his close disciple, but he didn’t. He sticked to Malik . So did Muhammad Ibn Al-Hassan , the disciple of Abu Haneefa , who is one of the famous narrators of Imam Malik’s Muwata. Had Al-Khadem been more knowledgable than Malik he would not have wasted his time with Malik and only spent a few visits to Al-Khadem in prison. These two famous scholars had nothing against Ahlul Bayt. They sought knowledge from wherever and whomever they can get it. Certainly a member of Ahlul Bayt would be more worthy of their pursuit had he been the most knowledgeable person of his time.

Even the famous Shia narrator Abu Baseer attested to the fact that Al-Khadem was not very knowledgeable. Al-Khoei said in Rijal Al-Hadith Vol 15 p. 154:

“Al-Shayk (i.e Al-Tusi) narrated this last narration through an isnad which could be considered, with a slight change in wording. He narrated through his isnad upto Ali Ibn Al-Hassan from Shuayb Al-Aqerkufi he said:” I asked Abu Al-Hassan (a.s)”… until he said: “and then I mentioned that to Abu Baseer (i.e the fatwa of Al-Khadem which is detailed in the next narration) so he said to me: by Allah Jafar (a.s) said: The woman is to be stonned and the man is to be flogged a hundred times as Hadd. And then he took his hands and placed them over his chest scratching it and saying: I do not think that the knowledge of one we are following has become complete yet (i.e referring to Al-Khazim).” (Ref,: Al-Tahdeeb Vol 7. Chapter on additional (topics) with regards to Fiqdh of Marriage, Hadith # 1957, as well as Al-Istibsar Vol 3, Chapter on Man marrying a woman and then knowing after having relation with her that she has a husband. Hadith # 687).

He also narrated the content of this hadith through his chain upto Ahmad Ibn Muhammad from Ibn Abi Umair from Shuaib that he said: I asked Abu Al-Hassan (a.s) about a man marrying a married woman. He said: They have to be separated. I asked: Is he to be flogged? He said: No , he is not to be flogged. So I departed him, while Abu Baseer was next to the Meez-ab (i.e of the Kaaba) so I informed him about the question and answer. He said to me: Where am I? I said: you are next to the Meez-ab. He then lifted his hand and said: By the Lord of this House , or by the Lord of this Kaaba, I have heard Jafar say that Ali (a.s) gave a judgment about the man marrying a married woman that the woman be stonned and the man be flogged as Hadd. He then said: Had I known that you have known I would have bruised your head with stones. He then said: I am so scared that he (i.e Al-Khadem ) was not given his knowledge. (Ref: Al-Tahdeeb Vol 10 Chapter on Hudud of adultery, hadith # 76)”.


(IV). Weren’t the Imams from Ahlul-bayt taught by fallible teachers?

We’ve even heard from misinformed Shias that the twelve infallible Imams received knowledge exclusively from one another. Methods theorized about this transfer of knowledge include the direct approach (i.e. teaching verbally, the inheritance of books from one another, etc…) or that the Imams received knowledge through a spiritual transfer of knowledge upon the death of the previous Imam. Regardless of which of these methods a Shi’ee adopts, it has been well documented that the Imams have received knowledge from fallible sources that aren’t restricted to a certain tribe or bloodline.

In an attempt to shed some light on this subject, we have collected the names of the teachers of three of the Imams of the Ithna-`Ashari sect to prove this fact, because it’s an extremely important subject, which destroys the Shia myth that Islamic teachings can only be taken through infallibles or Ahlul-bayt.

The three Imams we chose, were known to have lived in the age of Hadith and Fiqh, and were praised by many scholars of Islam, so their names will appear in many chains in the reliable books of Hadith, they are:

(A). Ali bin al-Hussain(Zain al-`Abideen) who was popular for his Zuhd, (B). his son Muhammad bin `Ali(al-Baqir) who was popular for his Hadith, and (C). his grandson Ja`far bin Muhammad (al-Sadiq) who was popular for his Fiqh.

(A). The Teachers of `Ali bin al-Hussain(Zain al-`Abideen)[Rah]

His teacher from the Imams from Ahlulbayt according to Twelver Shi’ites:

1- Al-Hussain bin `Ali

حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدَانُ، أَخْبَرَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ، أَخْبَرَنَا يُونُسُ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، قَالَ: أَخْبَرَنِي عَلِيُّ بْنُ حُسَيْنٍ، أَنَّ حُسَيْنَ بْنَ عَلِيٍّ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ أَخْبَرَهُ، أَنَّ عَلِيًّا عَلَيْهِ السَّلَام، قَالَ: كَانَتْ لِي شَارِفٌ مِنْ نَصِيبِي مِنَ الْمَغْنَمِ، وَكَانَ النَّبِيُّ أَعْطَانِي

[Sahih al-Bukhari]

His teachers from other members from Ahlulbayt(Includes their servants):

2- `Abdullah ibn `Abbas

حَدَّثَنَا حَسَنُ بْنُ عَلِيٍّ الْحُلْوَانِيُّ، وَعَبْدُ بْنُ حُمَيْد، قَالَ حَسَنٌ: حَدَّثَنَا يَعْقُوبُ، وَقَالَ عَبد: حَدَّثَنِي يَعْقُوبُ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ بْنِ سَعْدٍ، حدثنا أبى عَنْ صَالِحٍ، عَنْ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، حَدَّثَنِي عَلِيُّ بْنُ حُسَيْنٍ، أَنَّ عَبْدَ اللَّهِ بْنَ عَبَّاسٍ، قال: أَخْبَرَنِي رَجُلٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِ النَّبِيِّ مِنْ الْأَنْصَارِ

[Sahih Muslim]

3-`A’ishah bint Abu Bakr (Umm-ul-Mu’mineen)

حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ بَشَّارٍ، حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ، حَدَّثَنَا سُفْيَانُ، عَنْ أَبِي الزِّنَادِ، عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحُسَيْنِ، عَنْ عَائِشَةَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهَا، أَنّ النَّبِيَّ : كَانَ يُقَبِّلُ وَهُوَ صَائِمٌ

[Sahih Muslim]

4-Safiyyah bint Huyay (Umm-ul-Mu’mineen)

حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو الْيَمَانِ، أَخْبَرَنَا شُعَيْبٌ، عَنِ الزُّهْرِيِّ، قَالَ: أَخْبَرَنِي عَلِيُّ بْنُ الْحُسَيْنِ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ: أَنَّ صَفِيَّةَ زَوْجَ النَّبِيِّ أَخْبَرَتْهُ، أَنَّهَا جَاءَتْ إِلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ

[Sahih al-Bukhari]

5-Umm Salamah (Umm-ul-Mu’mineen)

أَخْبَرَنَا هَاشِمُ بْنُ الْقَاسِمِ، أَخْبَرَنَا أَبُو جَعْفَرٍ الرَّازِيُّ، عَنْ جَعْفَرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ حُسَيْنٍ، عَنْ أُمِّ سَلَمَةَ،  قَالَتْ: أَكَلَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ

[Tabaqat ibn Sa`d]

6-Umm Abeeha bint `Abdullah bin Ja`far bin abi Talib

حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو خَلِيفَةَ الْفَضْلُ بْنُ الْحُباب، ثنا عَلِيُّ بْنُ الْمَدِينِيِّ، ثنا يَعْقُوبُ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ بْنِ سَعْدٍ، حَدَّثَنِي أَبِي، عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ إِسْحَاقَ، حَدَّثَنِي أَبَانُ بْنُ صَالِحٍ، عَنِ الْقَعْقَاعِ بْنِ حَكِيمٍ، عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ حُسَيْنٍ، عَنْ بِنْتِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ جَعْفَرٍ الَّتِي عِنْدَ عَبْدِ الْمَلِكِ بْنِ مَرْوَانَ، عَنْ أَبِيهَا عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ جَعْفَرٍ، قَالَ عَلِيُّ بْنُ حُسَيْنٍ وَكَانَ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ جَعْفَرٍ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمَا، يَقُولُ: عَلَّمَنِي عَلِيُّ بْنُ أَبِي طَالِبٍ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ كَلِمَاتٍ أَقُولُهُن

[Al-Du`a’ lil-Tabarani]

7-Zaynab bint Umm Salamah (Rabeebat Rasul-Allah (saw))

أَخْبَرَنَا حَاتِمُ بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ الْمَدَنِيُّ، عَنْ جَعْفَرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحُسَيْنِ، عَنْ زَيْنَبَ بِنْتِ أُمِّ سَلَمَةَ، عَنْ أُمِّ سَلَمَةَ، قَالَتْ: أَكَلَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ

[Musnad Ishaq bin Rahawayh]

8-Aslam abu Rafi` (Mawla Rasul-Allah (saw))

حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ الأَسَدِيُّ، عَنْ شَرِيكٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ عَقِيلٍ، عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحُسَيْنِ، عَنْ أَبِي رَافِعٍ، قَالَ: قَالَتْ فَاطِمَةُ: يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ، أَلا أَعُقُّ

[Musannaf  ibn abi Shaybah]

9-`Ubaydullah ibn abu Rafi` (Ibn Mawla Rasul-Allah (saw))

نا يَحْيَى بْنُ آدَمَ، قَالَ: نا سُفْيَانُ، عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ الْحَارِثِ بْنِ عَيَّاشٍ، عَنْ زَيْدِ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ عُبَيْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ أَبِي رَافِعٍ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ عَلِيٍّ، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ قَالَ: ” مِنًى كُلُّهَا مَنْحَرٌ

[Musannaf ibn abi Shaybah]

His teachers from outside Ahlul-bayt (Sahabah and Tabi`een and Atba`):

10-Abu Hurayrah

أَخْبَرَنَاهُ أَبُو الْقَاسِمِ زَاهِرُ بْنُ طَاهِرٍ، أَنَا أَبُو سَعْدٍ أَحْمَدُ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ بْنِ مُوسَى الْمُقْرِئُ، أَنَا أَبُو الْحَسَنِ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَلِيِّ بْنِ سَهْلٍ الْمَاسَرْجِسِيُّ، أَنَا أَحْمَدُ بْنُ مِهْرَانَ ـ إِمْلاءً، بِمِصْرَ ـ، نَا فَهْدُ بْنُ سُلَيْمَانَ، نَا أَصْبَغُ بْنُ الْفَرَجَ، نَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ وَهْبٍ، عَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ الْحَارِثِ، أَنَّ أَبَا السَّمْحِ، حَدَّثَهُ، عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحُسَيْنِ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، عَنْ رَسُولِ اللَّه قَالَ: سَأَلَ مُوسَى رَبَّهُ

[Tareekh Dimashq]

11-Jabir bin `Abdullah al-Ansari

ثنا عَلِيُّ بْنُ حُجْرٍ، حَدَّثَنَا إِسْمَاعِيلُ بْنُ جَعْفَرٍ، حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو جَعْفَرٍ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ عَلِيِّ بْنِ أَبِي طَالِبٍ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ جَابِرِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ: ” أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ  مَكَثَ بِالْمَدِينَةِ تِسْعَ سِنِينَ لَمْ يَحُجَّ
[Sahih ibn Khuzaymah]

12-Al-Miswar bin Makhramah

حَدَّثَنَا سَعِيدُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ الْجَرْمِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا يَعْقُوبُ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ، حَدَّثَنَا أَبِي، أَنَّ الْوَلِيدَ بْنَ كَثِيرٍ حَدَّثَهُ، عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَمْرِو بْنِ حَلْحَلَةَ الدُّؤَلِيِّ حَدَّثَهُ، أَنَّ ابْنَ شِهَابٍ حَدَّثَهُ، أَنَّ عَلِيَّ بْنَ حُسَيْنٍ حَدَّثَهُ، أَنَّهُمْ حِينَ قَدِمُوا الْمَدِينَةَ مِنْ عِنْدِ يَزِيدَ بْنِ مُعَاوِيَةَ مَقْتَلَ حُسَيْنِ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ رَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِ لَقِيَهُ الْمِسْوَرُ بْنُ مَخْرَمَةَ، فَقَالَ لَهُ: هَلْ لَكَ إِلَيَّ مِنْ حَاجَةٍ

[Sahih al-Bukhari]

13-Malik bin Rabee`ah abu Usayd al-Ansari

أَخْبَرَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ، أَخْبَرَنَا ابْنُ وَهْبٍ، قَالَ: أَخْبَرَنِي ابْنُ أَبِي ذِئْبٍ، عَنْ جَعْفَرٍ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ جَدِّهِ، أَنَّ أَبَا أَسِيدٍ الأَنْصَارِيَّ قَدِمَ بِسَبْيٍ مِنَ الْبَحْرَيْنِ

[Al-Awsat li ibn al-Mundhir]

14-Al-Rubayyi` bint Mu`awwidh al-Ansariyah

حَدَّثَنَا إِبْرَاهِيمُ بْنُ حَمَّادٍ، ثنا الْعَبَّاسُ بْنُ يَزِيدَ، نا سُفْيَانُ بْنُ عُيَيْنَةَ، حَدَّثَنِي عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَقِيلٍ، أَنَّ عَلِيَّ بْنَ الْحُسَيْنِ أَرْسَلَهُ إِلَى الرُّبَيِّعِ بِنْتِ مُعَوِّذٍ يَسْأَلُهَا عَنْ وُضُوءِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ

[Sunan al-Daraqutni]

15-Sa`eed bin al-Musayyib

حَدَّثَنَا الْحُسَيْنُ بْنُ إِسْحَاقَ التُّسْتَرِيُّ، وَإِبْرَاهِيمُ بْنُ هَاشِمٍ الْبَغَوِيُّ، قَالا: ثنا أُمَيَّةُ بْنُ بِسْطَامَ، ثنا يَزِيدُ بْنُ زُرَيْعٍ، عَنْ إِسْرَائِيلَ، عَنْ حَكِيمِ بْنِ جُبَيْرٍ، عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ حُسَيْنٍ، حَدَّثَنِي سَعِيدُ بْنُ الْمُسَيِّبِ، أَنَّ سَعْدَ بْنَ أَبِي وَقَّاصٍ حَدَّثَهُ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ قَالَ لِعَلِيٍّ

[Mu`jam al-Tabarani al-Kabir]

16-Dhakwan abu Salih al-Samman (Mawla Umm-ul-Mu’mineen)

أنا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ الْمُثَنَّى، وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ بَشَّارٍ، قَالا: نا مُحَمَّدٌ، نا شُعْبَةُ، عَنِ الْحَكَمِ، عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ حُسَيْنٍ، عَنْ ذَكْوَانَ، مَوْلَى عَائِشَةَ، قَالَتْ: قَدِمَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ لأَرْبَعٍ بَقِينَ مِنْ ذِي الْحِجَّةِ

[Hadith Shu`bah lil-Nasa’i]

17-Zirr bin Hubaysh

حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو أَحْمَدَ، قال: حَدَّثَنَا مِسْعَرٌ، عَنْ عَدِيِّ بْنِ ثَابِتٍ، عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ حُسَيْنٍ، وَعَاصِمٍ، عَنْ زِرٍّ، عَنْ عَائِشَةَ، رضي الله عنها، قالت: مَا تَرَكَ النَّبِيُّ

[Tareekh ibn Shubah]

18-Sa`eed bin Marjanah

حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَبْدِ الرَّحِيمِ، حَدَّثَنَا دَاوُدُ بْنُ رُشَيْدٍ، حَدَّثَنَا الْوَلِيدُ بْنُ مُسْلِمٍ، عَنْ أَبِي غَسَّانَ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ مُطَرِّفٍ، عَنْ زَيْدِ بْنِ أَسْلَمَ، عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ حُسَيْنٍ، عَنْ سَعِيدِ بْنِ مَرْجَانَةَ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ  قَالَ: ” مَنْ أَعْتَقَ رَقَبَةً مُسْلِمَةً

[Sahih al-Bukhari]

19-`Amro bin `Uthman bin `Affan

حَدَّثَنَا سُلَيْمَانُ بْنُ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ، حَدَّثَنَا سَعْدَانُ بْنُ يَحْيَى، حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ أَبِي حَفْصَةَ، عَنْ الزُّهْرِيِّ، عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ حُسَيْنٍ، عَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ عُثْمَانَ، عَنْ أُسَامَةَ بْنِ زَيْدٍ، أَنَّهُ قَالَ زَمَنَ الْفَتْحِ: يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ، أَيْنَ تَنْزِلُ غَدًا

[Sahih al-Bukhari]

20-Marwan bin al-Hakam

حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ بَشَّارٍ، حَدَّثَنَا غُنْدَرٌ، حَدَّثَنَا شُعْبَةُ، عَنِ الْحَكَمِ، عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ حُسَيْنٍ، عَنْ مَرْوَانَ بْنِ الْحَكَمِ، قَالَ: شَهِدْتُ عُثْمَانَ، وَعَلِيًّا رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمَا

[Sahih al-Bukhari]

(B). The Teachers of Muhammad ibn `Ali(al-Baqir)[rah]

His teacher from Imams from Ahlul-bayt according to Twelver Shi’ites::

1- `Ali bin al-Husayn (Zain Al-`Abideen)

حَدَّثَنَا حَفْصٌ، عَنْ جَعْفَرٍ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ حُسَيْنٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ، عَنِ الْفَضْلِ بْنِ عَبَّاسٍ، أَنّ النَّبِيَّ لَمْ يَزَلْ يُلَبِّي حَتَّى رَمَى جَمْرَةَ الْعَقَبَةِ
[Musannaf ibn abi Shaybah]

His teachers from other members from Ahlulbayt (includes their servants):

2- `Abdullah ibn `Abbas bin `Abdul-Muttalib

قَالَ عَبْد اللَّهِ: وَحَدَّثَنِي عَمْرُو بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ النَّاقِدُ، قَالَ: حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو أَحْمَدَ الزُّبَيْرِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا سُفْيَانُ، عَنْ جَعْفَرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ، عَنْ مُعَاوِيَةَ، قَالَ: قَصَّرْتُ عَنْ رَأْسِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ عِنْدَ الْمَرْوَةِ
[Musnad Ahmad]

3- Muhammad bin `Ali ibn abi Talib (Ibn al-Hanafiyyah)

حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ زَيْدٍ، بِعَبَادَانِ، قَالَ عَمْرُو بْنُ عَاصِمٍ، قَالَ: حَدَّثَنَا حَرْبُ بْنُ سُرَيْجٍ الْبَزَّارُ، قَالَ: قُلْتُ لأَبِي جَعْفَرٍ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحُسَيْنِ، جُعِلْتُ فِدَاكَ، أَرَأَيْتَ هَذِهِ الشَّفَاعَةَ الَّتِي يَتَحَدَّثُ بِهَا أَهْلُ الْعِرَاقِ، أَحَقٌّ هِيَ؟ قَالَ: شَفَاعَةُ مَاذَا؟ قَالَ: شَفَاعَةُ مُحَمَّدٍ قَالَ: حَقٌّ وَاللَّهِ، إِي وَاللَّهِ، لَحَدَّثَنِي عَمِّي مُحَمَدُّ بْنُ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحَنَفِيَّةِ، عنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ أَبِي طَالِبٍ، أَنّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ
[al-Tawheed li ibn Khuzaymah]

4- `Abdullah bin Ja`far bin Abi Talib

أَخْبَرَنَا سُفْيَانُ بْنُ عُيَيْنَةَ، عَنْ جَعْفَرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ جَعْفَرٍ، قَالَ: لَمَّا جَاءَ نَعْيُ جَعْفَرٍ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ
[Musnad al-Imam al-Shafi`i]

5- Umm Salamah (Umm-ul-Mu’mineen)

حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو بَكْرٍ، قَالَ: ثَنَا وَكِيعٌ، عَنِ الْقَاسِمِ بْنِ الْفَضْلِ، عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ، عَنْ أُمِّ سَلَمَةَ، قَالَتْ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ : الْحَجُّ جِهَادُ كُلِّ ضَعِيفٍ
[Musannaf ibn abi Shaybah]

6- Yazid Abu Murrah (Mawla `Aqeel bin Abi Talib)

وحَدَّثَنِي حَجَّاجُ بْنُ الشَّاعِرِ، حَدَّثَنَا مُعَلَّى بْنُ أَسَدٍ، حَدَّثَنَا وُهَيْبُ بْنُ خَالِدٍ، عَنْ جَعْفَرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ أَبِي مُرَّةَ مَوْلَى عَقِيلٍ، عَنْ أُمِّ هَانِئٍ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى فِي بَيْتِهَا عَامَ الْفَتْحِ
[Sahih Muslim]

7- `Ubaydullah bin Abi Rafi` (Ibn Mawla Rasul-Allah (saw))

عَنِ ابْنِ جُرَيْجٍ، قَالَ: حَدَّثَنَا جَعْفَرُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ عُبَيْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ أَبِي رَافِعٍ، قَالَ: ” كَانَ أَبُو هُرَيْرَةَ يُصَلِّي بِنَا الْجُمُعَةَ، فَيَقْرَأُ بِنَا فِي الرَّكْعَةِ الأُولَى بِسُورَةِ الْجُمُعَةِ
[Musannaf ibn abi Shaybah]

His teachers from outside Ahlulbayt, (Sahabah and Tabi`een and Atba`):

8- `Abdullah bin `Umar bin al-Khattab

حَدَّثنا سُفْيَانُ، قَالَ: حَدَّثنا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ سُوقَةَ، عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ أَنَّهُ سَمِعَهُ، يَقُولُ: كَانَ ابْنُ عُمَرَ إِذَا سَمِعَ شَيْئًا لَمْ يَزِدْ فِيهِ، وَلَمْ يَنْقُصْ مِنْهُ، وَلَمْ يُجَاوِزْهُ إِلَى غَيْرِهِ، وَلَمْ يُقْصرِّ عَنْهُ، فَحَدَّثَ عُبَيْدُ بْنُ عُمَيْرٍ وَابْنُ عُمَرَ جَالِسٌ، أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ
[Musnad al-Hameedi]

9- Jabir bin `Abdullah al-Ansari

حَدَّثَنَا عَلِيُّ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ، حَدَّثَنَا سُفْيَانُ، حَدَّثَنَا عَمْرٌو، سَمِعَ مُحَمَّدَ بْنَ عَلِيٍّ، عَنْ جَابِرِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمْ، قَالَ: قَالَ النَّبِيُّ لَوْ قَدْ جَاءَ مَالُ الْبَحْرَيْنِ قَدْ أَعْطَيْتُكَ
[Sahih al-Bukhari]

10- Sa`d bin Malik (abu Sa`eed al-Khudari)

حَدَّثَنَا يَحْيَى بْنُ مَعِينٍ، حَدَّثَنَا حَفْصٌ، عَنْ جَعْفَرٍ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ أَبِي سَعِيدٍ قَالَ: كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ يُضَحِّي بِكَبْشٍ أَقْرَنَ
[Sunan abu Dawud]

11- Anas ibn Malik (Khadim Rasul-Allah (saw))

حَدَّثَنَا يَحْيَى بْنُ حَاتِمٍ الْعَسْكَرِيُّ، نَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ الْكُوفِيُّ، نَا بَسَّامٌ الصَّيْرَفِيُّ، عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ قَالَ: سَأَلْتُ أَنَسَ بْنَ مَالِكٍ عَنْ أَجْرِ الْحَجَّامِ، فَقَالَ: احْتَجَمَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ حَجَمَهُ أَبُو طَيْبَةَ، وَأَعْطَاهُ أَجْرَهُ
[Musnad al-Bazzar]

12- Al-Miqdam bin Ma`di Karib

حَدَّثَنَا عَلِيُّ بْنُ سَعِيدٍ الرَّازِيُّ، قَالَ: نا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ صَالِحِ بْنِ مِهْرَانَ، قَالَ: نا أَرْطَاةُ أَبُو حَاتِمٍ، قَالَ: نا جَعْفَرُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ أَبِي كَرِيمَةَ، قَالَ: سَمِعْتُ عَلِيَّ بْنَ أَبِي طَالِبٍ، وَهُوَ يَخْطُبُ عَلَى مِنْبَرِ الْكُوفَةِ، وَهُوَ يَقُولُ: يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ، إِنِّي سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ
[al-Mu`jam al-Awsat lil-Tabarani]

13- Sawadah ibn abi al-Ja`d

أَخْبَرَنَا الْقَاسِمُ بْنُ زَكَرِيَّا بْنِ دِينَارٍ، قَالَ: حَدَّثَنَا سَعِيدُ بْنُ عَمْرٍو الْأَشْعَثِيُّ، قَالَ: حَدَّثَنَا عَبْثَرٌ، عَنْ مُطَرِّفٍ، عَنْ سَوَادَةَ بْنِ أَبِي الْجَعْدِ، عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ، قَالَ: كُنْتُ جَالِسًا عِنْدَ سُوَيْدِ بْنِ مُقَرِّنٍ، فَقَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ مَنْ قُتِلَ دُونَ مَظْلَمَتِهِ فَهُوَ شَهِيدٌ
[al-Sunan al-Sughra lil-Nasa’i]

14- Umm Mu`qil al-Ansariyah

حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ حَنْبَلٍ، ثنا الْعَبَّاسُ بْنُ الْوَلِيدِ النَّرْسِيُّ، ثنا مُسْلِمُ بْنُ خَالِدٍ، عَنْ جَعْفَرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنِ امْرَأَةٍ، يُقَالُ لَهَا أُمُّ مَعْقِلٍ
[Mu`jam al-Tabarani al-Kabir]

15- Ibrahim bin Sa`d bin Abi Waqqas

قَرَأْتُ عَلَى مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ سُلَيْمَانَ، عَنِ ابْنِ ُعيَيْنَةَ، عَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ دِينَارٍ، عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ، عَنْ إِبْرَاهِيمَ بْنِ سَعْدِ بْنِ أَبِي وَقَّاصٍ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، وَلَمْ يَقُلْ مَرَّةً، عَنْ أَبِيه، قَالَ: ” كُنَّا عِنْدَ النَّبِيِّ وَعِنْدَهُ قَوْمٌ جُلُوسٌ، فَدَخَلَ عَلِيٌّ
[Sunan al-Nasa’i al-Kubra]

16- Sa`eed bin Al-Musayyab

حَدَّثَنِي إِبْرَاهِيمُ بْنُ مُوسَى الرَّازِيُّ، وَإِسْحَاق بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ، قَالَا: أَخْبَرَنَا عِيسَى بْنُ يُونُسَ، حَدَّثَنَا الْأَوْزَاعِيُّ، عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ، عَنْ ابْنِ الْمُسَيَّبِ، عَنْ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ: أَنّ النَّبِيَّ قَالَ: ” مَثَلُ الَّذِي يَرْجِعُ فِي صَدَقَتِهِ
[Sahih Muslim]

17- Harmalah (Mawla Usamah bin Zayd)

حَدَّثَنَا عَلِيُّ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ، حَدَّثَنَا سُفْيَانُ، قَالَ: قَالَ عَمْرٌو، أَخْبَرَنِي مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَلِيٍّ، أَنَّ حَرْمَلَةَ مَوْلَى أُسَامَةَ أَخْبَرَهُ، قَالَ عَمْرٌو: قَدْ رَأَيْتُ حَرْمَلَةَ، قَالَ: أَرْسَلَنِي أُسَامَةُ إِلَى عَلِيٍّ
[Sahih al-Bukhari]

18- `Ata’ bin Yasar al-Hilali

كَمَا أَخْبَرَنَا عَلِيُّ بْنُ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ عَبْدَانَ، أنبأ أَحْمَدُ بْنُ عُبَيْدٍ، ثنا هِشَامُ بْنُ عَلِيٍّ، ثنا ابْنُ رَجَاءٍ، ثنا حَرْبٌ، عَنْ يَحْيَى، قَالَ: حَدَّثَنِي إِسْحَاقُ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ أَبِي طَلْحَةَ، أَنَّ أَبَا جَعْفَرٍ الْمَدَنِيَّ حَدَّثَهُ، أَنَّ عَطَاءَ بْنَ يَسَارٍ، حَدَّثَهُ: أَنَّ رَجُلا مِنْ أَصْحَابِ النَّبِيِّ
[Sunan al-Bayhaqi al-Kubra]

19- Yazeed bin Hurmuz

أَخْبَرَنَا عَبْدُ الْعَزِيزِ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ، عَنْ جَعْفَرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ يَزِيدَ بْنِ هُرْمُزَ، أَنَّ نَجْدَةَ كَتَبَ إِلَى ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ: هَلْ كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ يَغْزُو بِالنِّسَاءِ
[Musnad al-Imam al-Shafi`i]

20- Rafi` bin Bishr al-Sulami

أَخْبَرَنَا أَحْمَدُ بْنُ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْمُثَنَّى، قَالَ: حَدَّثَنَا مُجَاهِدُ بْنُ مُوسَى، قَالَ: حَدَّثَنَا عُثْمَانُ بْنُ عُمَرَ، قَالَ: حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الْحَمِيدِ بْنُ جَعْفَرٍ، عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ، عَنْ رَافِعِ بْنِ بِشْرٍ السُّلَمِيِّ، عَنْ أبيه، قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ : ” يُوشِكُ أَنْ تَخْرُجَ نَارٌ مِنْ حُبْسٍ
[Sahih ibn Hibban]

21- `Abdullah bin Khabbab al-Ansari

حدَّثَنَا يَعْقُوبُ، قَالَ: حَدَّثَنَا أَبِي، عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ إِسْحَاقَ، قَالَ: حَدَّثَنِي مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَلِيِّ بْنِ حُسَيْنِ أبو جَعْفَرٍ، وأبي إِسحاقُ بنُ يسار، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ خَبَّابٍ مَوْلَى بَنِي عَدِيِّ بْنِ النَّجَّارِ، عَنْ أَبِي سَعِيدٍ الْخُدْرِيِّ، قَالَ: كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ قَدْ ” نَهَانَا عَنْ أَنْ نَأْكُلَ لُحُومَ نُسُكِنَا فَوْقَ ثَلَاثٍ
[Musnad Ahmad]

22- `Abdullah bin Muslim al-Zuhri

حَدَّثَنَا أَحْمَدُ بْنُ جَعْفَرِ بْنِ سَالِمٍ، ثنا يَعْقُوبُ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ بْنِ حَسَّانَ، ثنا بِشْرُ بْنُ مُعَاذٍ، ثنا مُوسَى بْنُ عِيسَى، حَدَّثَنِي جَعْفَرُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ مُسْلِمٍ، أَخِي الزُّهْرِيّ عَنْ أَنَسِ بْنِ مَالِكٍ، قَالَ: سَمِعْتُ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ وَسَلَّمَ وَقِيلَ لَهُ: يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ، مَا الْكَوْثَرُ
[Sifat-ul-Jannah li abu Nu`aym]

23- `Amro bin Rafi` al-Qurashi (Mawla `Umar bin al-Khattab)

حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو خَيْثَمَةَ، حَدَّثَنَا يَعْقُوبُ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمُ، حَدَّثَنَا أَبِي، عَنِ ابْنِ إِسْحَاقَ، قَالَ: حَدَّثَنِي أَبُو جَعْفَرٍ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَلِيٍّ، وَنَافِعٌ، أَنَّ عَمْرَو بْنَ رافِعٍ مَوْلَى عُمَرَ بْنِ الْخَطَّابِ حَدَّثَهُمَا أَنَّهُ، كَانَ يَكْتُبُ الْمَصَاحِفَ فِي عَهْدِ أَزْوَاجِ النَّبِيِّ
[Musnad abu Ya`la]

(C). The Teachers of Ja`far bin Muhammad(al-Sadiq)[rah]

His teacher from Imams from Ahlulbayt according to Twelver Shi’ites::

1-Muhammad bin `Ali (al-Baqir)

مَالِك، عَنْ جَعْفَرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، أَنَّ عُمَرَ بْنَ الْخَطَّابِ ذَكَرَ الْمَجُوسَ، فَقَالَ: مَا أَدْرِي كَيْفَ أَصْنَعُ فِي أَمْرِهِمْ؟ فَقَالَ عَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنُ عَوْفٍ: أَشْهَدُ لَسَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ  يَقُولُ: ” سُنُّوا بِهِمْ سُنَّةَ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ

[Muwatta’ Malik]

His teachers from other members from Ahlulbayt (Includes their servants):

2-Zayd bin `Ali bin Husayn bin `Ali bin abi Talib

حَدَّثَنَا حُسَيْنُ بْنُ عَلِيٍّ، عَنْ جَعْفَرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ، قَالَ: حَدَّثَنِي زَيْدُ بْنُ عَلِيٍّ، قَالَ: مَرَرْتُ بِأَبِي جَعْفَرٍ وَهُوَ فِي دَارِهِ وَهُوَ يَقُول اللَّهُمَّ اغْفِرْ لِي بِالْقُرْآنِ، اللَّهُمَّ ارْحَمْنِي بِالْقُرْآنِ، اللَّهُمَّ اهْدِنِي بِالْقُرْآنِ، اللَّهُمَّ ارْزُقْنِي بِالْقُرْآنِ

[Musannaf ibn abi Shaybah]

3-`Ikrimah (Mawla ibn `Abbas)

حَدَّثَنَا أَحْمَدُ بْنُ رِشْدِينَ، ثنا هَانِئُ بْنُ الْمُتَوَكِّلِ الإِسْكَنْدَرَانِيُّ، ثنا مُعَاوِيَةُ بْنُ صَالِحٍ، عَنْ جَعْفَرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ، عَنْ عِكْرِمَةَ، عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ، قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ : مَنْ قَالَ جَزَى اللَّهُ مُحَمَّدًا عَنَّا

[Mu`jam al-Tabarani al-Kabir]

4-`Ubaydullah ibn abu Rafi` (Ibn Mawla Rasul-Allah (saw))

حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ، قَالَ: نا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَبَّادٍ الْمَكِّيُّ، نا أَبُو سَعِيدٍ، نا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ جَعْفَرٍ، عَنْ أُمِّ بَكْرٍ، وَجَعْفَرٍ، عَنْ عُبَيْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ أَبِي رَافِعٍ، عَنِ الْمِسْوَرِ، قَالَ: كَتَبَ حَسَنُ بْنُ حَسَنٍ إِلَى الْمِسْوَرِ يَخْطُبُ ابْنَتًا لَهُ

[Fada’il al-Sahabah li-Ahmad]

His teachers from outside Ahlul-bayt (Sahabah and Tabi`een and Atba`):

5-Al-Qasim bin Muhammad bin Abu Bakr

حَدَّثَنَا عَلِيُّ بْنُ الْمُبَارَكِ الصَّنْعَانِيُّ، وَالْعَبَّاسُ بْنُ الْفَضْلِ الأَسْفَاطِيُّ، قَالا: ثنا إِسْمَاعِيلُ بْنُ أَبِي أُوَيْسٍ، حَدَّثَنِي سُلَيْمَانُ بْنُ بِلالٍ، عَنْ جَعْفَرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ، عَنِ الْقَاسِمِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ، عَنْ مُعَاوِيَةَ، أَنّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ، قَالَ لِلنَّاسِ: ” إِنْ صَلَّى الإِمَامُ جَالِسًا فَصَلُّوا جُلُوسًا “، قَالَ الْقَاسِمُ: فَعَجِبَ النَّاسُ مِنْ صِدْقِ مُعَاوِيَةَ

[Mu`jam al-Tabarani al-Kabir]

6-`Ata’ ibn abi Rabah

حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ مَسْلَمَةَ بْنِ قَعْنَبٍ، حَدَّثَنَا سُلَيْمَانُ يَعْنِي ابْنَ بِلَالٍ، عَنْ جَعْفَرٍ وَهُوَ ابْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ، عَنْ عَطَاءِ بْنِ أَبِي رَبَاحٍ، أَنَّهُ سَمِعَ عَائِشَةَ زَوْجَ النَّبِيِّ  تَقُولُ: كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ   إِذَا كَانَ يَوْمُ الرِّيحِ وَالْغَيْمِ

[Sahih Muslim]

7-Nafi` (Mawla ibn `Umar)

حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ قُتَيْبَةَ، ثَنَا مُوسَى بْنُ سَهْلٍ، ثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَبْدِ الْعَزِيزِ الرَّمْلِيُّ، ثَنَا الْقَاسِمُ بْنُ غُصْنٍ، ثَنَا جَعْفَرُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ، عَنْ نَافِعٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ، قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ  عَلَى ذِرْوَةِ سَنَامِ

[Mu`jam al-Awsat lil-Tabarani]

8-`Amro bin Dinar al-Jumahi

حَدَّثَنَا سُفْيَانُ، عَنْ يَحْيَى بْنِ صَبِيحٍ الْخُرَاسَانِيِّ، عَنْ جَعْفَرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ، عَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ دِينَارٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ سَابِطٍ الْجُمَحِيِّ، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ  مِثْلَهُ

[Al-Iman lil-`Adni]

9-Shareek bin `Abdullah al-Laythi

حَدَّثَنَا عَلانُ بْنُ الْمُغِيرَةِ، قَالَ: ثنا ابْنُ أَبِي مَرْيَمَ، قَالَ: أَخْبَرَنَا جَعْفَرُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ، قَالَ: أَخْبَرَنَا شَرِيكُ بْنُ أَبِي نَمِرٍ سَمِعْتُ أَنَسَ بْنَ مَالِكٍ، يَقُولُ: بَيْنَمَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ  يَوْمًا قَائِمًا يَخْطُبُ عَلَى الْمِنْبَرِ

[Al-Awsat li-ibn al-Mundhir]

10-Muhammad ibn abi Harmalah

حَدَّثَنَا يَحْيَى بْنُ أَيُّوبَ الْعَلافُ، ثنا سَعِيدُ بْنُ أَبِي مَرْيَمَ، ثنا جَعْفَرُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ، أَخْبَرَنِي مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ أَبِي حَرْمَلَةَ، أَخْبَرَنِي سَالِمُ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، أَنّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ  قَالَ: مَنِ اقْتَنَى كَلْبًا

[Mu`jam al-Tabarani al-Kabir]

11-Muhammad ibn al-Munkadir

وحَدَّثَنَاه قُتَيْبَةُ، عَنْ حَاتِمِ بْنِ إِسْمَاعِيل، عَنْ جَعْفَرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ، عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْمُنْكَدِرِ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ حُنَيْنٍ، عَنْ عَلِيٍّ، وَلَمْ يَذْكُرْ: فِي السُّجُودِ

[Sahih Muslim]

12-Muhammad bin Shihab al-Zuhri

حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَلِيٍّ الصَّائِغُ، قال: نا أَحْمَدُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ الْقَوَّاسُ، قال: نا مُسْلِمُ بْنُ خَالِدٍ الزَّنْجِيُّ، عَنْ جَعْفَرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، عَنْ عُبَيْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ، عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ، قَالَ: مَارَانِي رَجُلٌ مِنْ بَنِي فَزَارَةَ فِي الرَّجُلِ الَّذِي اتَّبَعَهُ مُوسَى

[Mu`jam al-Tabarani al-Awsat]

13-Sa`d bin Ibrahim bin `Abdul-Rahman bin `Awf

أَبُو بَكْرٍ، قَالَ: نَا ابْنُ إدْرِيسَ، عَنْ جَعْفَرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ، عَنْ سَعِيدِ بْنِ إبْرَاهِيمَ، أَنّ رَجُلًا قَالَ لِامْرَأَتِهِ: أَنْتِ طَالِقٌ، فَسَأَلَ الْقَاسِمَ وَسَالِمًا، فَقَالَا: نَرَى أَنْ نُحَلِّفَهُ مَا أَرَادَ أَلْبَتَّةَ

[Musannaf ibn abi Shaybah]

14-Yazid bin Qusayt al-Laythi

أَخْبَرَنَا مَرْوَانُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ، حَدَّثَنَا سُلَيْمَانُ بْنُ بِلَالٍ، حَدَّثَنَا جَعْفَرُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ، عَنْ يَزِيدَ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ قُسَيْطٍ، قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ  الْمَرْءُ أَحَقُّ بِثُلُثِ مَالِهِ، يَضَعُهُ فِي أَيِّ مَالِهِ شَاءَ

[Sunan al-Darimi]

15-Humayd bin Qays al-A`raj

حَدَّثَنَا الْحَسَنُ بْنُ عَلِيٍّ الْمَعْمَرِيُّ، ثنا عَلِيُّ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ جَعْفَرٍ الْمَدِينِيُّ، حَدَّثَنِي أَبِي، ثنا جَعْفَرُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ، عَنْ حُمَيْدٍ الأَعْرَجِ، عَنْ مُجَاهِدٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ رَضِي اللَّهُ تَعَالَى عَنْهُمَا، أَنَّ فِتْيَانًا مِنْ بَنِي هَاشِمٍ أَتَوُا النَّبِيَّ

[Al-Mu`jam al-Kabir lil Tabarani]

16-Sufiyan bin `Asim bin `Abdul-`Aziz

حَدَّثَنَا حَاتِمُ بْنُ إسْمَاعِيلَ، عَنْ جَعْفَرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ، عَنْ سُفْيَانَ بْنِ عَاصِمٍ، قال: شَهِدْتُ عُمَرَ بْنَ عَبْدِ الْعَزِيزِ، قَالَ لِأَمَةٍ لَهُ: إنِّي لَأَرَاكِ تُسَلِّينَ حِنَاطِي فَلَا تَجْعَلِي فِيهِ مِسْكًا

[Musannaf ibn abi Shaybah]


(V). The Mischief of Shi’ites.

Based on the above three collections of the teachers of the Imams from Ahlul-Bayt, and after studying the chains in the books of the Sunnah and the Shia, we decided to write down the following observation.

It appears that the Imams from Ahlul-Bayt narrate from quite a good number of teachers, most of which are venerable, reliable and popular scholars, this shows that they took their knowledge from the purest of sources. However, in the books of the Shia the chains appear to be missing the names of their teachers; we give some examples below to illustrate this matter and clarify what we mean.

Example #1:

In the books of Ahlul-Sunnah, Sunan al-Nasa’i al-Kubra 2/308:

أَخْبَرَنَا عُتْبَةُ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ، قال: أَنْبَأَنَا ابْنُ الْمُبَارَكِ، عَنْ سُفْيَانَ، عَنْ جَعْفَرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ جَابِرِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ، قال: كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ  يَقُولُ فِي خُطْبَتِهِ يَحْمَدُ اللَّهَ وَيُثْنِي عَلَيْهِ بِمَا هُوَ أَهْلُهُ، ثُمَّ يَقُولُ: ” مَنْ يَهْدِهِ اللَّهُ فَلَا مُضِلَّ لَهُ وَمَنْ يُضْلِلْهُ فَلَا هَادِيَ لَهُ، إِنَّ أَصْدَقَ الْحَدِيثِ كِتَابُ اللَّهِ، وَأَحْسَنَ الْهَدْيِ هَدْيُ مُحَمَّدٍ، وَشَرُّ الْأُمُورِ مُحْدَثَاتُهَا، وَكُلُّ مُحْدَثَةٍ بِدْعَةٌ وَكُلُّ بِدْعَةٍ ضَلَالَةٌ وَكُلُّ ضَلَالَةٍ فِي النَّارِ

[`Utbah bin `Abdullah told us, he said: Ibn al-Mubarak had told us, from Sufiyan, from Ja`far bin Muhammad, from his father, from Jabir ibn `Abdullah, he said: “Rasul-Allah (saw) used to say in his sermon (until he said) every invented matter is an innovation, and every innovation is a misguidance, and every misguidance is in the fire.”]

Whereas in the books of the Shia, Al-Kafi 1/56:

عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحَكَمِ عَنْ عُمَرَ بْنِ أَبَانٍ الْكَلْبِيِّ عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحِيمِ الْقَصِيرِ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ( عليه السلام ) قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ( صلى الله عليه وآله ) كُلُّ بِدْعَةٍ ضَلَالَة وَ كُلُّ ضَلَالَةٍ فِي النَّارِ

[Some of our companions, from Ahmad bin Muhammad bin `Isa, from `Ali bin al-Hakam, from `Umar bin Abban al-Kabli, from `Abdul-Rahim al-Qasir, from abu `Abdillah (as), he said: Rasul-Allah (saw) said: “Every innovation is a misguidance and every misguidance is in the fire.”]

Comment: As we can see, the name of Abu Abdillah’s father Muhammad who narrates from Jabir al-Ansari have been crossed out.

Example #2:

In the books of Ahlul-Sunnah, Sunan al-Nasa’i al-Kubra 6/180:

أَخْبَرَنَا إِسْحَاقُ بْنُ مَنْصُورٍ، قَالَ: حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الصَّمَدِ، قَالَ: حَدَّثَنَا حَرْبٌ، قَالَ: حَدَّثَنِي يَحْيَى، قَالَ: حَدَّثَنِي عَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنُ عُمَرَو، أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا وَهُوَ ابْنُ عَلِيِّ بْنِ حُسَيْنِ ابْنِ فَاطِمَةَ بِنْتِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ حَدَّثَهُ، عَنْ سَعِيدِ بْنِ الْمُسَيِّبِ، عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ، أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ  قَالَ: ” مَثَلُ الَّذِي يَتَصَدَّقُ بِالصَّدَقَةِ، ثُمَّ يَرْجِعُ فِيهَا، كَمَثَلِ الْكَلْبِ، قَاءَ، ثُمَّ عَادَ فِي قَيْئِهِ، فَأَكَلَهُ

[Ishaq bin Mansour told us, he said: `Abdul-Samad told us, he said: Harb told us, he said: Yahya told me, he said: `Abdul-Rahman bin `Amro told me, that he was told by Muhammad the son of `Ali bin Husayn bin Fatimah bint Rasul-Allah (saw), from Sa`eed bin al-Musayyib, from `Abdullah ibn `Abbas, that the Prophet (saw) said: “The example of one who offers charity then takes it back, is like a dog who vomits then swallows his own vomit.”]

Whereas in the books of the Shia, Tahdheeb al-Ahkam 9/155:

عنه عن ابن أبي عمير عن حماد عن الحلبي عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام قال: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله: إنما مثل الذي يرجع في صدقته كالذي يرجع في قيئه

[From him (Husayn bin Sa`eed), from ibn abi `Umar, from Hammad, from al-Halabi, from abi `Abdillah (saw), he said: Rasul-Allah (saw) said: “The example of one who takes back his charity is like one who swallows his vomit.”]

Comment: Even in this examplee, there is no mention about Abi Abdillah’s(as) father narrating it from ibn al-Musayyib from ibn `Abbas, this was all removed.

Example #3:

In the books of Ahlul-Sunnah, Musnad Ahmad 44/139:

حَدَّثَنَا وَكِيعٌ حَدَّثَنَا الْقَاسِمُ بْنُ الْفَضْلِ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ عَنْ أُمِّ سَلَمَةَ قَالَتْ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ الْحَجُّ جِهَادُ كُلِّ ضَعِيفٍ

[Waki` told us, al-Qasim bin al-Fadl told us, from abu Ja`far Muhammad bin `Ali, from Umm Salamah that she said: Rasul-Allah (saw) said: “Pilgrimage is the struggle of every weak person.”]

Whereas in the books of the Shia, Al-Kafi 4/259:

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ جُنْدَبٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ( عليه السلام ) قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ( صلى الله عليه وآله ) الْحَجُّ جِهَادُ الضَّعِيفِ

[`Ali bin Ibrahim, from his father, from ibn abi `Umayr, from Jundab, from abu `Abdillah (as) that he said: Rasul-Allah (saw) said: “Pilgrimage is the struggle of the weak.”]

Comment: Again, there is no mention of Abi Abdillah’s father who in turn heard it from Umm Salamah.

Comparison between popular Shi’ee narrators narrating in Sunni and Shi’ee books:

Even the popular Shi`ee narrators in the books of Ahlul-Sunnah narrate in a different manner than the way they are claimed to narrate in Shia books.

(i). Jabir al-Ju`fi narrating in Sunni Books:

Jabir bin Yazid al-Ju`fi who dwelled in Kufa narrates from Ahlul-Bayt often and his narrations are preserved in the books of Ahlul-Sunnah, we read some of his chains:

Musannaf ibn abi Shaybah:

حَدَّثَنَا هُشَيْمٌ، قَالَ: أَخْبَرَنَا جَابِرٌ الْجُعْفِيُّ، عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ: أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ  خَرَجَ وَهُوَ يُرِيدُ الصَّلَاةَ فَمَرَّ بِقِدْرٍ تَفُورُ

[Hushaym told us, he said: Jabir al-Ju`fi told us, from abu Ja`far, from ibn `Abbas that Rasul-Allah (saw) went out seeking prayer etc…]

Musnad al-Bazzar:

حَدَّثَنَا عَمْرُو بْنُ عَلِيٍّ، قَالَ: نا أَبُو دَاوُدَ، قَالَ: نا شَيْبَانُ يَعْنِي ابْنَ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ، عَنْ جَابِرِ بْنِ يَزِيدَ، عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ جَعْفَرٍ، أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ  احْتَجَمَ عَلَى قَرْنِ رَأْسِهِ وَهُوَ مُحْرِمٌ

[`Amro bin `Ali told us, he said: abu Dawud told us, he said: we were told by Shaybah – meaning ibn `Abdul-Rahman – from Jabir bin Yazid, from Muhammad bin `Ali, from `Abdullah bin Ja`far, that the Prophet (saw) made Hijamah etc…]

Tabaqat ibn Sa`d:

أَخْبَرَنَا عُبَيْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ مُوسَى الْعَبْسِيُّ، أَخْبَرَنَا إِسْرَائِيلُ، عَنْ جَابِرٍ، عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ، عَنْ بُدَيْلِ بْنِ وَرْقَاءَ، قَالَ: أَمَرَنِي رَسُولُ اللَّهِ  أَيَّامَ التَّشْرِيقِ أَنْ أُنَادِيَ

[`Ubaydullah bin Musa al-`Absi told us, Isra’il told us, from Jabir, from Muhammad bin `Ali, from Budayl bin Warqa’ al-Khuza`i, he said: Rasul-Allah (saw) had ordered me on the days of etc…]

Jabir al-Ju`fi narrating in Shi’ee Books:

On the other hand, in the books of the Shia Jabir al-Ju`fi only narrates up until the al-Baqir and doesn’t continue the chain. Now a person may argue that this is Irsal and that sometimes narrators decide to make a Hadith Marfou` to the messenger(saw) without naming their teachers, this is understandable but the problem with the Shia narrations of Jabir al-Ju`fi is that he always stops at the Imam and we never find complete chains.

Let us give an example of a Jabir al-Ju`fi chain from al-Kafi 3/489:

عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ جَابِرٍ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ ( عليه السلام ) قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ( صلى الله عليه وآله ) لِجَبْرَئِيلَ

[Some of our companions, from Ahmad bin Muhammad, from ibn abi `Umayr, from Jabir, from abu Ja`far (as), he said: Rasul-Allah (saw) told Jibreel etc…]

All of the man’s narrations in the books of the Shia are similar to this one; it is too much of a coincidence.

(ii). Abban bin Taghlib al-Jariri narrating in Sunni Books:

The same can be noticed about other Shia narrators, we will give two more examples starting with Abban bin Taghlib al-Jariri who also dwelled in Kufa.

Akhbar Asbahan li-abi Nu`aym:

حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو بَكْرِ بْنُ الْمُقْرِئِ، ثنا يَحْيَى بْنُ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ أَحْمَدَ الْعَلَوِيُّ، ثنا الْحُسَيْنُ بْنُ عَلِيِّ بْنِ يَزِيدَ النَّيْسَابُورِيُّ، أَخْبَرَنِي جَعْفَرُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ جَعْفَرِ بْنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ الْهَاشِمِيُّ، ثنا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَلِيِّ بْنِ خَلَفٍ، ثن مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَمْرِو الرَّازِيُّ، ثنا أَبَانُ بْنُ تَغْلِبَ، عَنْ جَعْفَرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ جَابِرٍ، أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ  لَبَّى بِحَجَّةٍ وَعُمْرَةٍ مَعًا

[Abu Bakr al-Muqri’ told us, Yahya bin Muhammad bin Ahmad al-`Alawi told us, al-Husayn bin `Ali bin Yazid al-Naysaburi told us, Ja`far bin Muhammad bin Hasan bin Ja`far bin Hasan bin Husayn bin `Ali al-Hashimi told me, Muhammad bin `Ali bin Khalaf told us, Muhammad bin `Amro al-Razi told us, Abban bin Taghlib told us, from Ja`far bin Muhammad, from his father, from Jabir, that the Prophet (saw) made Talbiyah for Hajj and `Umrah combined.]

Not only this, but Abban did not only take his knowledge from the so called infallible, he narrated from many others:

Sahih Muslim:

حَدَّثَنَا زُهَيْرُ بْنُ حَرْبٍ، وَابْنُ نُمَيْرٍ، قَالَا: حَدَّثَنَا سُفْيَانُ بْنُ عُيَيْنَةَ، حَدَّثَنَا أَبَانُ، وَغَيْرُهُ، عَنِ الْحَكَمِ، عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ أَبِي لَيْلَى، عَنْ الْبَرَاءِ، قَالَ: كُنَّا مَعَ النَّبِيِّ

[Zuhayr bin Harb and ibn Numayr both told us, they said: Sufiyan bin `Uyaynah told us, Abban told us as well as others, from al-Hakam, from `Abdul-Rahman ibn abi Laylah, from al-Bara’ who said: We were with the Prophet (saw) etc…]

Al-Mu`jam al-Kabir lil-Tabarani:

حدثنا عَلِيُّ بْنُ عَبْدِ الْعَزِيزِ، ثنا عَارِمٌ أَبُو النُّعْمَانِ، ثنا حَمَّادُ بْنُ زَيْدٍ، عَنْ أَبَانَ بْنِ تَغْلِبَ، عَنِ الأَعْمَشِ، عَنْ أَبِي عَمْرٍو الشَّيْبَانِيِّ، عَنْ أَبِي مَسْعُودٍ، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ  قَالَ: مَنْ دَلَّ عَلَى خَيْرٍ فَلَهُ مِثْلُ أَجْرِ مَنْ فَعَلَهُ

[`Ali bin `Abdul-`Aziz told us, abu al-Nu`man `Arim told us, Hammad bin Zayd told us, from Abban bin Taghlib, from al-A`mash, from abu `Amro al-Shaybani, from abu Mas`oud al-Ansari, from the Prophet (saw): Whoever teaches a good thing etc…]

Abban bin Taghlib al-Jariri narrating in Shi’ee Books:

On the other hand, just like his companion al-Ju`fi, Abban in the books of the Shia always narrates up until the Imam without listing a full chain, we give an example of a typical narration from al-Kafi 2/352:

عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ خَالِدٍ عَنْ إِسْمَاعِيلَ بْنِ مِهْرَانَ عَنْ أَبِي سَعِيدٍ الْقَمَّاطِ عَنْ أَبَانِ بْنِ تَغْلِبَ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ ( عليه السلام ) قَالَ لَمَّا أُسْرِيَ بِالنَّبِيِّ

[Some of our companions, from Ahmad bin Muhammad bin Khalid, from Isma`il bin Mihran, from abu Sa`eed al-Qammat, from Abban bin Taghlib, from abu Ja`far (as): When the Prophet (saw) was made to ascend etc…]

(iii). Thabit also known as abu Hamzah al-Thumali narrating in Sunni Books:

Our last dweller of Kufa for this research is Thabit also known as abu Hamzah al-Thumali the popular Shi`ee narrator, who lived in the time of three of the Twelver Imams and narrated from them.

Sunan ibn Majah:

حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ عَامِرِ بْنِ زُرَارَةَ، حَدَّثَنَا شَرِيكُ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ النَّخَعِيُّ، عَنْ ثَابِتِ بْنِ أَبِي صَفِيَّةَ الثُّمَالِيِّ، قَالَ: سَأَلْتُ أَبَا جَعْفَرٍ، قُلْتُ لَهُ: حَدَّثْتَ عَنْ جَابِرِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ  تَوَضَّأَ مَرَّةً مَرَّةً، قَالَ: نَعَمْ، قُلْتُ: وَمَرَّتَيْنِ مَرَّتَيْنِ، وَثَلَاثًا ثَلَاثًا، قَالَ: نَعَمْ

[`Abdullah bin `Amir bin Zurarah told us, Shareek bin `Abdullah al-Nakh`i told us, from Thabit bin abi Safiyyah al-Thumali, he said: I asked abu Ja`far, I told him: You narrated from Jabir bin `Abdullah, that the Prophet (saw) made Wudhu’ a single then a single? He replied: “Yes.” I said: And double then double, and triple then triple? He said: “Yes”.]

Mu`jam al-Tabarani al-Sagheer:

حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ أَبِي زُرْعَةَ الدِّمَشْقِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا هِشَامُ بْنُ عَمَّارٍ، حَدَّثَنَا خَالِدُ بْنُ يَزِيدَ الْقَسْرِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا ثَابِتٌ أَبُو حَمْزَةَ الثُّمَالِيُّ، عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحُسَيْنِ، عَنْ أُمِّ سَلَمَةَ زَوْجِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ وَسَلَّمَ، أَنَّهَا قَالَتْ: يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ إِنَّ نِسَاءَ بَنِي مَخْزُومٍ قَدْ أَقْمْنَ

[Muhammad bin abi Zur`ah al-Dimashqi told us, Hisham bin `Ammar told us, Khalid bin Yazid al-Qasri told us, Thabit abu Hamzah al-Thumali told us, from abu Ja`far Muhammad bin `Ali bin al-Husayn, from Umm Salamah the wife of the Prophet (saw), that she said: O Rasul-Allah (saw), the women of Bani Makhzoum have etc…]

Thabit also known as abu Hamzah al-Thumali narrating in Shi’ee Books:

As for his narrations in the books of the Shia, we read in al-Kafi:

مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ سِنَانٍ عَنِ ابْنِ مُسْكَانَ عَنْ أَبِي حَمْزَةَ الثُّمَالِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ( عليه السلام ) قَالَ جَاءَ رَجُلٌ إِلَى النَّبِيِّ

[Muhammad bin Yahya, from Ahmad bin Muhammad, from Muhammad bin Sinan, from ibn Muskan, from abu Hamzah al-Thumali, from abu `Abdillah (as) that he said: A man came to the Prophet (saw) etc…]


Without prolonging this further, let’s us share with our readers what we assume is the case here based on a good quantity of evidence. The names of the teachers of Ahlul-Bayt were always present in the narrations of the early Shia in Kufa; these names were later completely dropped by either later stages of Shia in Kufa or only in Qum for several possible reasons:

  1. Politics: The biggest motive that drove the Rafidah to delete the names of certain scholars or teachers of Ahlul-Bayt, was their enmity towards them. They simply detested these men for political and historical reasons and their bias drove them to remove such names from the Hadith.
  2. Tribalism: One of the earliest beliefs of the Ghulat was that Ahlul-Bayt were the most knowledgeable and that correct knowledge can only come through them. This led them to cross out the name of anyone who was not from the household of Muhammad (saw) and they restricted the religious teachings to banu Hashim.
  3. Infallibility: A later belief which emerged from the beliefs of the Ghulat and spread in Qum was that a certain number of individuals of Ahlul-Bayt were chosen by Allah and thus they had to be infallible, whenever one dies his knowledge is transferred to his successor. This meant that it is not possible for anyone other than these men to narrate a religious ruling since they are prone to error and prone to making mistakes. This forced the Imami branch of the Shia to remove all other names even if they were from Banu Hashim, and to tell people that whatever an Imam narrates is by necessity from his fathers before him.
  4. Sectarianism: They wanted to advertise for their ways and wished to be known as the Ja`fari Madhab, so they would attribute popular connected prophetic chains to Ja`far al-Sadiq. A similar matter was done by some `Alawites who would attribute anything which sounds eloquent and wise to `Ali ibn abi Talib, even some prophetic narrations, this resulted in the book Nahj-ul-Balaghah. Also, attributing lies to one of the late descendants of the Prophet (saw) greatly lowers the risk of them being accused of lying and makes it much harder to catch the liars.
Thought provoking Question to Shias:

Major Shia scholar Ibrahim bin Hashim al-Qummi who claimed to be a companion of “Imam al-Taqi(as)” and is known to narrate a lot of Hadith yet he chose to narrate from many other people other than Imam al-Taqi(as), why is that? Why didn’t he narrate significant amount of hadeeth directly from Imam al-Taqi(as)?

Lastly, we would like to present a verse of Quran, where Allah(swt) says that after the Prophets(as), the Rabbis and the scholars judged according to the scripture of Allah(torah) they were entrusted with, note that Quran doesn’t says that, only some infallibles were entrusted with the scripture of Allah and were assigned for this job after Prophets:

Indeed, We sent down the Torah, in which was guidance and light. The prophets who submitted [to Allah] judged by it for the Jews, as did the rabbis and scholars by that with which they were entrusted of the Scripture of Allah, and they were witnesses thereto. So do not fear the people but fear Me, and do not exchange My verses for a small price. And whoever does not judge by what Allah has revealed – then it is those who are the disbelievers. (Maida 5: 44)

 May Allah’s (swt) blessings be upon His Messenger, his household, and companions.

2 thoughts on “Smashing the myth of taking Ahlul-bayt as the only conveyors of Islamic knowledge.

  1. عن علي قال : قلت : يا رسول الله ، إن نزل بنا أمر ليس فيه بيان : أمر ولا نهي ، فما تأمرنا ؟ قال : تشاورون الفقهاء والعابدين ، ولا تمضوا فيه رأي خاصة
    Ali r.a says Oh Messenger of Allah Salallahu `alayhi wassalam: If a matter comes upon us about which there is no information, neither to do it nor to abstain from it. so, What do you command us regarding it? He (the Prophet) said consult your (righteouss) Fuqahaa and (knowledgable) Aabideen(worshipers) and Do not execute (orders) on the opinion of any (one) specific person. [Al Mu`jam al Awsat, Hadeeth 1641] ; Narrator walid bin Saleh has tawtheeq only from ibn Hibban.

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