The bravery of Imam Abu Bakr(ra) and Imam Umar(ra)


The bravery of Imam Abu Bakr(ra) and Imam Umar(ra)

Bismillaahi Walĥamdulillaahi waŝŝalaatu wassalaamu ‘alaa rasoolillaahi

We have divided divided this article in the following parts:

I. Who was the bravest companion?

II. Abu Bakr’s Jihad of first type – some examples of his bravery.

III. Umar’s jihad of first type and the effect of his becoming Muslim on the Dawah.

IV. Ali(ra) describes the bravery of Abu Bakr as-Siddeeq(ra) and Umar bin Khattab(ra) – The Men who were Lionhearted.

V. Answering Rafidi arguments in regards to Battle of Uhud.

VI. Answering Rafidi arguments in regards to Battle of Hunain.

VII. Answering Rafidi arguments in regards to Battle of Khayber.

VIII. Answering Rafidi arguments in regards to Hijrah of Abu Bakr(ra) with Prophet(saw).

 

I. Who was the bravest companion?

This is one of the issues which Rafidah love to raise against the personality of companions like Imam Abu Bakr(as) and Imam ‘Umar(as). Their problem is that they think bravery is to kill people in Jihad and if someone couldn’t kill with his power then he is not brave. And hence, they conclude, Imam Abu Bakr and Imam ‘Umar were not brave. If that is the case then people like Pharaoh, Nimrod, Stalin and all the mass murderers would be listed at the top in the list of the bravest people.

Among the Sahaba Bara bin Malik al-Ansari lonely killed hundred men besides those whom he killed with the help of others. Hamza, Abu Dujanah al-Ansari, ‘Aasim bin Thabit, Talha, Zubair, Sa’d were all known for their specialty in tackling the enemy. But no one prefer them over Imam‘Ali bin Abi Talib or over Imam Abu Bakr and Imam ‘Umar, may Allah be well pleased with them all.

Once a person presents himself to face the enemy he is proven to be a brave one regardless of how much of them he could kill or defeat. Abu Bakr and ‘Umar, may Allah be pleased with them, never missed any battle with the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) and they were seen defending the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) during harsh conditions especially in Uhud and Hunain. How could such a person be coward? If it is just because there is hardly any narration describing how they killed a Mushrik during battle then what could be the response regarding the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) who never killed anyone in battle except Ubayy bin Khalaf? If Shias say that the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) was bravest but he was a leader and hence did not involve in fighting then we shall let ‘Ali(ra) falsify this claim. Hence Imam Ahmad records in Musnad (1042), Abu Ya’la (302, 412) and others with an authentic Isnad through Abu Ishaq from Harithah bin Mudharrib that ‘Ali said:

لَمَّا حَضَرَ الْبَأْسُ يَوْمَ بَدْرٍ اتَّقَيْنَا بِرَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ، وَكَانَ مِنْ أَشَدِّ النَّاسِ، مَا كَانَ – أَوْ: لَمْ يَكُنْ – أَحَدٌ أَقْرَبَ إِلَى الْمُشْرِكِينَ مِنْهُ

“When the fighting grew intense on the day of Badr we sought shelter by drawing closer to the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), who was one of the strongest of men, and no was closer to the disbeliever than him.”

We see that during the harsh time even brave like ‘Ali(ra) used to seek shelter with the Messenger of Allah(saw) but still he(saw) did not kill anyone except Ubayy.

So what is bravery?

Let us look at the meaning of Shuja’ah [Arabic of bravery] in Arabic dictionary. Al-Jawhari says in “As-Sihaah” (3/1235):

شدَّة القلب عند البأس

“It is the stability of heart during trial.”

Even the English word bravery means ‘able or ready to face and endure danger, disgrace or pain’. So not being able to kill someone or not being able to conquer some place does not indicate cowardice. Indeed, those who were killed by ‘Ali during the battles were more than those who were killed by Abu Bakr and ‘Umar. But it only proves that ‘Ali encountered more famous combatants than them not that they were hiding for their life.

As for running away from battles then there is no indication that any of the two Shaikh(Abu Bakr or Umar) left the battle field. There were two incidents in Prophetic history when Muslims ran from the battle field when they couldn’t handle the enemy’s fierce attack. But in none of them, with any shred of evidence, Abu Bakr and ‘Umar left the battle field. Those proofs which some Shia quote to prove that they ran away from the battlefield are nothing but sheer misrepresentation of the context.

The following passage is from Minhaj as-Sunnah (8/87-89) of Shaykh al-Islam Abul Abbas Ahmed Ibn Taymiyyah who quoted ‘Allamah Ibn Hazm from “Al-Fisal” (4/107).

Ibn Hazm said:

[We see that they claim that ‘Ali was the greatest in waging Jihad against disbelievers and attacking and fighting them among all the companions.

Abu Muhammad (Ibn Hazm) said: This is wrong as the Jihad is classified in three categories;

  1. One of them is calling towards Allah,
  2. Second is to do Jihad during war by ideas and strategies
  3. And the third is to do jihad with hands by killing and hitting.

We find that with regards to the first type of Jihad no person supersede Abu Bakr and ‘Umar after the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam). As for Abu Bakr then we find that the senior companions accepted Islam on his hands. As compared to him, ‘Ali does not have much share in this. As for ‘Umar then we see that the day he became Muslim Islam was strengthened and the worship of Allah was being done openly. This is the greatest Jihad and these two persons were alone in such Jihad of the first two categories (during early days) which has no comparable and ‘Ali does not have participation in it.

With regards to the second type of Jihad then we find that it is specifically for Abu Bakr and then for ‘Umar.

As for the third type of Jihad which is stabbing, hitting and combating then we find that it is the lowest level of Jihad because of the obvious reason that the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), with the agreement of Muslims, was selective in doing the most virtuous of the act and we see that his(saw) Jihad in most of the cases was restricted within the first two categories which is to call towards Allah(swt) and planning and forwarding. His least involvement (among the three categories) was in stabbing, hitting and combating. This is not because of cowardice but in reality he was absolutely the bravest of all earthly beings with his hands and soul and the most complete to attain succor. But he would look for the best and then next after it from the acts, and then he would prefer it and get involved with it. We find that, during Badr and other battles, Abu Bakr would not leave him and sometimes even ‘Umar was included in it. They were distinguished in this case unlike ‘Ali and all other companions, except in rare cases.

Then after that we ponder over the third category of Jihad which is to stab, to hit and to combat. We see that ‘Ali was not alone in this, but many other companions also had the same share like Talha, Zubair and Sa’d and those were killed in early Islam like Hamza, ‘Ubaidah bin Harith and Mus’ab bin ‘Umair, and from Ansar Sa’d bin Mu’adh, Simak bin Kharshah, Abu Dujanah and others. Also Abu Bakr and ‘Umar do have good share in it even if they did not involve in it like these people which is because of their participation in a better Jihad in association with the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) and to aid him during battles. And he sent them for war more than he sent ‘Ali. He sent Abu Bakr towards Bani Fazarah and elsewhere and he sent ‘Umar towards Bani Fulan. On the other hand we do not know ‘Ali was sent for any battle except at some fort of Khaibar which he conquered [and he had sent Abu Bakr and ‘Umar there, before ‘Ali, but they could not conquer it]. So Abu Bakr and ‘Umar were involved in the highest level of Jihad and besides that they have their share with ‘Ali in the lower category of Jihad.

– End Quote –

Abul Abbas Ahmed Ibn Taymiyyah said:
فَإِنْ كَانَ مَنْ قَتَلَ أَكْثَرَ يَكُونُ أَشْجَعَ، فَكَثِيرٌ مِنَ الصَّحَابَةِ أَشْجَعُ مِنْ عَلِيٍّ، فَالْبَرَاءُ بْنُ مَالِكٍ – أَخُو أَنَسٍ – قَتَلَ مِائَةَ رَجُلٍ مُبَارَزَةً، غَيْرَ مَنْ شُورِكَ فِي دَمِهِ. وَأَمَّا خَالِدُ بْنُ الْوَلِيدِ فَلَا يُحْصِي عَدَدَ مَنْ قَتَلَهُ إِلَّا اللَّهُ، وَقَدِ انْكَسَرَ فِي يَدِهِ فِي غَزْوَةِ مُؤْتَةَ تِسْعَةُ أَسْيَافٍ، وَلَا رَيْبَ أَنَّهُ قَتَلَ أَضْعَافَ مَا قَتَلَهُ عَلِيٌّ
“If the person who has killed more (disbelievers) is the bravest then many of the companions would be braver than ‘Ali. So Bara’ bin ‘Aazib – the brother of Anas – killed hundred people alone leaving aside those whom he killed in association with others. As for Khalid bin Walid then only Allah knows the number of whom he killed. During the battle of Mu’ta nine swords were broken in his hands while fighting. There is no doubt that the number of people he killed was more than those whom ‘Ali killed.” (Minhaj al-Sunnah).

Narrated Anas: The Prophet (saw) had informed the people of the martyrdom of Zaid, Jafar and Ibn Rawaha before the news of their death reached. The Prophet (saw) said, “Zaid took the flag (as the commander of the army) and was martyred, then Jafar took it and was martyred, and then Ibn Rawaha took it and was martyred.” At that time the Prophet’s eyes were shedding tears. He added, “Then the flag was taken by a Sword amongst the Swords of Allah (i.e. Khalid) and Allah made them (i.e. the Muslims) victorious.” – Narrated Khalid bin Al-Walid: On the day (of the battle of) Mu’tah, nine swords were broken in my hand, and nothing was left in my hand except a Yemenite sword of mine. (Sahih al-Bukhari # 4262 & 4265)

Hence, we say that, a person might have been strong and had killed thousands but this is not bravery. While on the other hand a weak person who struggles but could not kill any enemy will be considered a brave person. So, ‘Ali(ra) was brave, not because he was able to kill so many disbelievers but rather because he did not have fear to face his enemies. This is the bravery. Therefore if anyone wants to judge the bravery of a person then he must look at his stable and fearless heart not the might with which he killed hundreds and thousands of enemies, for the Pharoah and Nimrod would then be bravest of all.

 

II. Abu Bakr’s Jihad of first type – some examples of his bravery.

We read:

Abu Bakr(ra) urged the Messenger of Allah(saw) to openly preach the message of Islam, but the Prophet(saw) responded by saying, “O Abu Bakr we are(as of yet) few in number”. Abu Bakr(ra) continued to urge the Prophet(saw) to openly preach until, one day, the Muslims spread out in different parts of the Masjid, with each man remaining in the midst of his clan Abu Bakr then stood up to deliver a sermon while the Messenger of Allah(saw) remained seated. On that day, Abu Bakr(ra) became the first person(from this nation) to deliver a sermon in which he invited people unto Allah(swt) and His Messenger(saw). The polytheists did not idly listen to his sermon: instead, they became enraged and charged towards Abu Bakr(ra) and the other Muslims. In various parts of the Masjid, the Quraish were giving a severe beating to the Muslims. Abu Bakr was both trampled upon and beaten severely; Using his shoes, the evildoer Utbah ibn Rabee’ah began to viciously strike Abu Bakr on his face. So severely was Abu Bakr beaten, and so much blood flowed down his face, that it became difficult to discern between his face and the back of his head. Had the beating continued, Abu Bakr might have died; infact, even as matters stood he did almost die. But his fellow clansmen from Banu Taim came, although somewhat belatedly, to defend him. They pushed the attacking mod away and carried Abu Bakr to his home, feeling certain that he had died. Members of the Banu Taim claim then returned to the Masjid and proclaimed, “By Allah, if Abu Bakr dies, we will indeed kill Uthbah ibn Rabee’ah”. They then returned to Abu Bakr and Abu Quhaafah(his father) as well as other members of Banu Taim tried to speak to him until he finally revived at the end of the day and spoke to them. But rather than answer heir questions, and rather than worry about his own condition, Abu Bakr asked them how the Prophet(saw) was doing. Since they were not Muslims, and since they care about Abu Bakr’s welfare particularly because he was from their claim, they were rather upset by what Abu Bakr had said, and they reproached him, reminding him that he should be worried about staying alive, for though he had regained consciousness, he was still extremely weak and bruised from the beating he had taken. [Refer: As-Seerah An-Nabawiyyah by ibn Katheer(1/439-441) and Al-Bidaayah Wan-Nihhaayah(3/30)].

Similarly we read in Ma`rifat-ul-Sahabah li abi Nu`aym:

حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو بَكْرٍ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ حُمَيْدِ بْنِ سُهَيْلٍ، ثنا عَبَّاسُ بْنُ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ الْبِرْتِيُّ، ثنا أَبُو بَكْرٍ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ عُبَيْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ إِسْحَاقَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِمْرَانَ بْنِ مُوسَى بْنِ طَلْحَةَ بْنِ عُبَيْدِ اللَّهِ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ عُبَيْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ إِسْحَاقَ، قَالَ: قَالَ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِمْرَانَ بْنِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ طَلْحَةَ حَدَّثَنِي أَبِي مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عِمْرَانَ، عَنِ الْقَاسِمِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ أَبِي بَكْرٍ، عَنْ عَائِشَةَ زَوْجِ النَّبِيِّ قَالَتْ: ” لَمَّا أَسْلَمَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ قَامَ خَطِيبًا، فَكَانَ أَوَّلُ خُطْبَتِهِ دَعَا إِلَى اللَّهِ وَإِلَى رَسُولِهِ، فَثَارَ الْمُشْرِكُونَ عَلَى أَبِي بَكْرٍ وَعَلَى الْمُسْلِمِينَ، فَضُرِبُوا ضَرْبًا شَدِيدًا، وَوُطِئَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ، وَضُرِبَ ضَرْبًا شَدِيدًا، وَدَنَا مِنْهُ عُتْبَةُ بْنُ رَبِيعَةَ، فَجَعَلَ يَضْرِبُهُ بِنَعْلَيْنِ مَخْصُوفَتَيْنِ وَيُحَرِّفُهُمَا لِوَجْهِهِ، فَنَزَلَ عَلَى بَطْنِ أَبِي بَكْرٍ حَتَّى مَا نَعْرِفُ أَنْفَهُ مِنْ وَجْهِهِ، فَجَاءَتْ بَنو تَيْمٍ، فَحَمَلَتْ أَبَا بَكْرٍ فِي ثَوْبٍ حَتَّى أَدْخَلُوهُ مَنْزِلِهِ لا يَشُكُّونَ فِي مَوْتِهِ، فَرَجَعَتْ بَنُو تَيْمٍ، فَدَخَلُوا الْمَسْجِدَ، فَقَالُوا: وَاللَّهِ لَئِنْ مَاتَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ لَنَقْتُلَنَّ عُتْبَةَ بْنَ رَبِيعَةَ

[Al-Qasim, from `A’ishah the wife of the Prophet (saw), she said: When Abu Bakr embraced Islam, he stood up addressing the people, he called towards Allah and his Messenger, so the pagans were furious and became angry at Abu Bakr and the Muslims, they beat them badly and Abu Bakr was injured and beaten, `Utbah bin Rabi`ah struck his face with his sandals to the extent that we could not distinguish his nose from his face. Banu Taym (Abu Bakr’s tribe) came and carried Abu Bakr in a cloak and dragged him home, they did not doubt that he was dead at that time. The Banu Taym entered the Masjid and said: “By Allah if Abu Bakr dies we will kill `Utbah bin Rabi`ah.”(Ma`rifat-ul-Sahabah).

We read in Sahih Bukhari:

Narrated `Urwa bin Az-Zubair: I asked `Abdullah bin `Amr bin Al-`As to inform me of the worst thing the pagans had done to Allah’s Apostle. He said: “While Allah’s Messenger (saw) was praying in the courtyard of the Ka`ba, `Uqba bin Abi Mu’ait came and seized Allah’s Messenger(saw) by the shoulder and twisted his garment round his neck and throttled him severely. Abu Bakr came and seized `Uqba’s shoulder and threw him away from Allah’s Apostle and said, “Would you kill a man because he says: ‘My Lord is Allah,’ and has come to you with clear Signs from your Lord?” (40.28). [Sahih Bukhari Book 65, Hadith 4815]

We read in Fath-ul-Bari li-ibn Hajar:

أنَّهُم قالوا لها ما أشدُّ ما رأيْتِ المشركينَ بلَغوا من رسولِ اللهِ صلَّى اللهُ عليْهِ وسلَّمَ ؟ فذكرَ نحو سياق ابن إسحاق المتقدم قريبا وفيه : فأتى الصريخُ إلى أبي بكرٍ فقال : أدرِكْ صاحبَكَ ، قالَتْ : فخرجَ من عِندِنا وله غدائرُ أربعٌ وهو يقولُ : ويلَكم أتقتلونَ رجلًا أن يقولَ ربِّي اللهُ ؟ فلَهَوا عنه ، وأقبَلوا إلى أبي بكرٍ ، فرجعَ إليْنا أبو بكرٍ فجعل لا يمسُّ شيئًا من غدائرِهِ إلا رجعَ معه وهو يقول: تباركت يا ذا الجلال والإكرام

They asked Asma’: What is the worst thing the pagans had done to Rasul-Allah (saw)? So she mentioned the story and said: The screaming reached Abu Bakr and they said to him: “Help your companion!” so he left us with braided hair, saying: “Woe to you! Would you kill a man because he says: My Lord is Allah!?” So they left the Messenger(saw) and (instead) ganged up on Abu Bakr. He finally came back (home) to us and whenever he touched his braids he said: “Glory be to You! The One Who deserves to be Exalted and not denied”. (Ibn Hajar said “Hasan”).

Abu Bakr(ra) was brave, fearing none but Allah. In the early days of Islam, some Muslims kept their Islam a secret from their relatives, fearing persecution and torture at their hands; that they kept their Islam a secret was not held against them, since staying alive was a major objective for Muslims at the time. Abu Bakr(ra) on the other hand, was not secretive about his Islam; instead, he openly proclaimed that he was a follower of the Prophet(saw). He openly worked for the propagation of Islam and hence many senior companions accepted Islam through his effort. For example, ‘Uthman, Talha, Zubair, ‘Abdur-Rahman bin ‘Awf and Sa’d bin Abi Waqqas. [See Seerah ibn Hisham]

It should be understood that, on these particular occasions, others did not stand up and speak out against Quraish’s vile treatment of the Prophet(Saw). Up until that time, fighting had not been legislated in Islam. And knowing that simply speaking out was inviting torture and perhaps even death, some Muslims kept their Islam a secret from the Quraish, while others, fearing for their lives, did not always speak out. Yes, on many occasions they did speak out and openly proclaim their faith; but in the most dangerous of situations – the ones that took place in the very early days of Islam and that are described in the above mentioned narrations – it was Abu bakr who alone stood up and defended the Prophet(Saw). After the Messenger of Allah(saw), Abu Bakr was the first person to be harmed in the way of Allah; he was the first to defend the Messenger of Allah(saw), and he was the first to invite others to the way of Allah(swt). Throughout his entire life, Abu Bakr was like the right hand of the Messenger of Allah(saw).

 

III. Umar’s jihad of first type and the effect of his becoming Muslim on the Dawah.

Narrated Abdullah ibn Umar: When Umar became Muslim, Quraysh did not know of that. He said: Who among the people of Makkah is most likely to tell others of what he hears? It was said to him: Jameel ibn Muammar al-Jumahi. So he went out to him, and I followed him to see what he was doing. I was a young boy but I understood everything I saw and heard. He went to him and said, O Jameel, I have become Muslim. By Allah, he did not answer him, but he got up, dragging his garment, and Umar followed him and I followed my father. He went and stood at the door of the mosque and yelled at the top of his voice: O Quraysh! – for they were gathered around the Kabah – Umar ibn al-Khattab has apostatized! Umar said from behind him, He is lying. Rather I have become Muslim and I bear witness that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is his Slave and Messenger. They attacked him, but Umar leapt on Utbah ibn Rabeeah and sat on him; he started to beat him and poke his fingers in his eyes, and Utbah started screaming. Then the people kept away from him. Umar stood up and went around to all the places where he used to sit with people when he had been a disbeliever, and openly declared his Islam. (Ar-Riyad an-Nadrah, page 319). He kept fighting them until the sun reached its zenith, and Umar got tired and sat down. They gathered around him and he said: What do you want? Whilst they were like that, there came a man who was wearing a silken hullah(suit) and an embroidered shirt. He said: What is the matter with you? They said: The son of al-Khattab has changed his religion. He said: So what? A man can choose a religion for himself. Do you think that Bani Adi will let you get away with it if you kill their companion? So they dispersed. I [Ibn Umar] said to him in Madeenah: O my father, who was the man who turned the people back from you that day? He said: O my son, that was al-As ibn Wail as-Sahmi.[Fadail as-Sahabah by Ahmad, 1/346. Isnad Hasan]

Abdullah Ibn Mas’ud (ra) said:
مَازِلْنَا أَعِزَّةً مُنْذُ أَسْلَمَ عُمَرُ
“We have been powerful since the time ‘Umar accepted Islam.” [Sahih Bukhari (3684) (3863)]

In fact, Umar(ra) entering into Islam was the result of the supplication made by the Messenger of Allah(saw). Hence Imam Ahmad narrates in Musnad and Ibn Hibban in Sahih (6881) that the Messenger of Allah (saw) said:
اللَّهُمَّ أَعِزَّ الدِّينَ بِأَحَبِّ هَذَيْنِ الرَّجُلَيْنِ إِلَيْكَ: بِأَبِي جَهْلِ بْنِ هِشَامٍ، أَوْ عُمَرَ بْنِ الْخَطَّابِ
“O Allah provide strength to Islam through either of the two whom you love more: Abu Jahl bin Hisham or ‘Umar bin al-Khattab.”

Abdullah ibn Masood said: We felt a sense of pride when Umar became Muslim, for we could not circumambulate the House(Kabah) and pray, until Umar became Muslim. When he became Muslim, he fought them until they left us alone. Then we prayed and circumambulated the Kabah.(Fadail Sahabah, 1/344. Isnad Hasan]

Ibn Masood said: Umar’s becoming Muslim was a victory, his migration was help, and his caliphate was a mercy. We could not pray or circumambulate the House(Kabah) until Umar became Muslim. When he became Muslim, he fought them until they left us alone and let us pray.(Ash Shaykhain Abu Bakr wa Umar, page 141)

Suhayb ibn Sinan said: When Umar ibn al-Khattab became Muslim, Islam came out into the open and the call to Islam was made in public. We sat around the Kabah in circles, and we circumambulated the house and settled our scores with those who had persecuted us. We started to hit back.(At-Tabaqat al Kubra, 3/269. Sifat as-Safwah 1/274).

Some examples of Umar’s bravery:

The following excerpt has been translated into English from the book “Tohfa Imamiya” by Maulana Hafiz Maher Muhammad. This passage is found on page number 370 of the booklet.

  1. Hazrat Umar Farooq openly declared that he would migrate to Medina unlike other Muslims. Taking his sword, bow, and arrow he arrived in Kabah. The pagan chiefs of the Quraish were sitting there. Hazrat Umar circumambulated around the Kabah and prayed Nawafil at Maqam Ibrahim. He is said to have gone to every polytheist and threatened them if anyone of them wants their mothers to cry, wives to become widows, and children to become orphans, he should come outside Mecca and confront him. Not a single polytheist came.
    2. During the Battle of Badr, Hazrat Umar Farooq killed the famous Quraish wrestler Al Aas Bin Hisham and Umro Bin Hisham (Seerah Ibn Hisham, Page number 778).
    3. During the Battle of Uhud, Hazrat Umar Farooq forced the contingent of Abu Sufyan to flee by throwing stones at them. (Seerat un Nabi, Pg 378).
    4. According to Seerah Ibn Hisham, Hazrat Umar Farooq was one of the companions who were present along with the Holy Prophet(saw) in the Battle of Uhud.
    5. During the Battle of the Trench, the place where Hazrat Umar Farooq was stationed, the pagans made the intention of attacking that position. Hazrat Umar Farooq along with Hazrat Zubair repulsed that attack. (Tabri, Pg 452).
    6. During the Battle of the Trench, Hazrat Umar Farooq forced the Quraish wrestler Zarar Asadi to flee the battlefield. (Seerat un Nabi, Pg 428).Hazrat Umar Farooq participated in all of the battles during the time of the Prophet(saw). But he killed a small number of people simply because like Hazrat Abu Bakr and Hazrat Uthman, he was assigned for the roles of leading and advising the Muslim forces. Further evidence of the bravery of Hazrat Umar Farooq is the annihilation of the Persian Empire and defeat of the Byzantine Empires which witnessed the golden principles of Islam to be preached there. It is logical that the destruction of these corrupt and deviant empires and opening them for the light of Islam to spread were more heroic and brave acts than personally killing disbelievers.

– End Quote –

 

IV. Ali(ra) describes the bravery of Abu Bakr as-Siddeeq(ra) and Umar bin Khattab(ra) – The Men who were Lionhearted.

The meaning of Shuja’ah(bravery) in Arabic dictionary was given by Al-Jawhari who says in “As-Sihaah” (3/1235):

شدَّة القلب عند البأس

“It is the stability of heart during trial.”

Example of Abu Bakr’s bravery

As we saw the meaning of bravery, now let us see an example from bravery of Abu Bakr(ra) as described by Ali(ra).

It was narrated that Muhammad Bin Aqeel bin Abu Talib said: Ali made a Sermon to us and he said: O people, Who was the bravest amongst the people? We said: You O Ameer al Mumineen, He(Ali) said: Rather, it is Abu Bakr as- Siddeeq, because on the day of Badr, we built the hut for the Messenger of Allah(saw) then we said: “Who will stand with him so that none of the polytheists will get close to him?” No one stood with him except Abu Bakr, who stood with his sword unsheathed, guarding the Prophet; every time anyone got close to him, Abu Bakr struck him with his sword. I saw the Messenger of Allah(saw), when Quraysh caught hold of him at the Ka’bah and started shaking him and saying: “You are the one who made the gods into one God.” By Allah, no one got close to him except Abu Bakr and at that time Abu Bakr had two braids. He started poking this one and pushing that one, saying: ‘Woe to you! Would you kill a man because he says my Lord is Allah(swt) when he has brought you proof from your Lord?” One of Abu Bakr’s braids was cut off, and ‘Ali said to his companions: I adjure you by Allah, which of the two men was better, the believer of the family of Pharaoh or Abu Bakr?’ The people kept quiet, then ‘Ali said: ‘By Allah, a day in the life of Abu Bakr is better than the believer of the family of Pharaoh; that man conceded his faith, and Allah praised him, but Abu Bakr offered his life and his blood for the sake of Allah.(Al Mustadrak (3/67) He said SAHIH on the condition of Muslim and Imam al Thahabi Agreed with him.) [Ali bin Abi Talib, by Ali Muhammad Sallabi, vol 1, page 170]

From the events mentioned by Ali(ra) one such is recorded in Bukhari and it was narrated by Abdullah ibn Amr bin Al-As, where we read:

Narrated `Urwa bin Az-Zubair: I asked `Abdullah bin `Amr bin Al-`As to inform me of the worst thing the pagans had done to Allah’s Apostle. He said: “While Allah’s Messenger (saw) was praying in the courtyard of the Ka`ba, `Uqba bin Abi Mu’ait came and seized Allah’s Messenger(saw) by the shoulder and twisted his garment round his neck and throttled him severely. Abu Bakr came and seized `Uqba’s shoulder and threw him away from Allah’s Apostle and said, “Would you kill a man because he says: ‘My Lord is Allah,’ and has come to you with clear Signs from your Lord?” (40.28). [Sahih Bukhari Book 65, Hadith 4815]

Example of Umar’s bravery:

Ibn Abbas said: Ali ibn Abi Talib said to me: I do not know of any of the Muhajireen who did not migrate in secret, except Umar ibn al-Khattab. When he decided to migrate, he put on his sword, put his bow over his shoulder, picked up his arrows and carried his stick by his side. He went out to the Ka’bah, where a number of Quraysh were gathered in its courtyard, and he circumambulated the House seven times, at a leisurely pace. Then he went to the circles of people, one by one, and said to them, May your faces become ugly! Allah will only rub these noses in the dust. Whoever wants his mother to be bereft of him and his children to become orphan or his wife to become a widow, let him meet me behind this valley. Ali said: No one followed him except a few of those who were weak and oppressed. He taught them and told them about Islam, then he went on his way. [Saheeh at-Tawtheeq fee seerat al-Farooq, page 30]

 

V. Answering Rafidi arguments in regards to Battle of Uhud.

First Rafidi(Saba’ee) argument:

Shiawebsite Shiapen stated:

[Quote]

Need we to tell you more about this alleged Wali Allah? It’s the same alleged Wali Allah who fled from the battle field of Uhud along with many more such alleged ‘Awliya Allah’ and Allah revealed the following verse:

إِذْ تُصْعِدُونَ وَلاَ تَلْوُونَ عَلَى أحَدٍ وَالرَّسُولُ يَدْعُوكُمْ فِي أُخْرَاكُمْ فَأَثَابَكُمْ غُمَّاً بِغَمٍّ لِّكَيْلاَ تَحْزَنُواْ عَلَى مَا فَاتَكُمْ وَلاَ مَا أَصَابَكُمْ وَاللّهُ خَبِيرٌ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ

[Yusufali 3:153] Behold! ye were climbing up the high ground, without even casting a side glance at any one, and the Messenger in your rear was calling you back.

The texts of history testify that in Uhud the vast bulk of the Sahaba fled the battlefield leaving Holy Prophet (s) wounded. Umar was of those that abandoned Holy Prophet (s) and sat dejected declaring that there was no need to fight as Holy Prophet (s) was dead. See:
1. Siratun Nabi, by Allamah Shibli Numani, English translation by M.Tayyib Bakhsh Budayuni, Volume 2 page 66-67 (Kazi Publications, Lahore – First edition)
2. The History of al Tabari, Volume 6 page 122 – English translation by M.V.MacDonald (State University of New York Press)

Similarly ‘Uthman fled so far that Rasul (s) mocked him stating ‘the distance you fled was far’. He returned to Rasul (s) after three days (The History of al Tabari, Volume 6 page 127).

(screen shot)[End Quote]

Response:

In the battle of Uhud, the archers whom the Prophet(saw) had commanded to stay in their position on the side of the mountain and not to move no matter what the outcome of the battle was. All but a few of them deserted their posts and came down to the field of battle seeking booty, when they saw the Muslims gathering it. Khalid ibn al-Waleed, who was the leader of the cavalry of Quraysh, took this opportunity when he saw that the mountain was bare of archers except a few. He, along with ‘Ikrimah ibn Abi Jahl, launched a cavalry attack and killed the remaining archers, including their leader ‘Abd-Allah ibn Jubayr, who had remained at his post with a small group. Whilst the Muslims were distracted and collecting the booty, Khalid and those who were with him attacked them from all sides and started killing them. The Muslims panicked and some of them, including ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan, fled to a place near Madinah, and they did not return until the fighting stopped. Another group became confused when they heard that the Prophet(saw) had been killed, and a third group stood firm with the Prophet(saw).

Concerning the group that fled, Allah revealed concerning them verse of Quran that will be recited until the Day of Resurrection. Allah said:
إِنَّ الَّذِينَ تَوَلَّوْا مِنْكُمْ يَوْمَ الْتَقَى الْجَمْعَانِ إِنَّمَا اسْتَزَلَّهُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ بِبَعْضِ مَا كَسَبُوا وَلَقَدْ عَفَا اللَّهُ عَنْهُمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ حَلِيمٌ
“Those of you who turned back on the day when the two hosts met it was Satan who caused them to backslide because of some (sins) they had earned. But, Allah indeed has forgiven them. Surely, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Forbearing.” [Surah Aal ‘Imran 3:155].

So, when Allah has forgiven that group then who are the Rafidah(Saba’ees) to raise question on them? Should we now wait until these Rawafidh(Saba’ees) forgive ‘Uthman(ra) after Allah has already forgiven him? These people accuse us of not following the second Thaqal while they can’t even accept the simple judgment of the greatest Thaqal (Qur’an). After Allah forgave those who retreated, the ruling is very clear and there is no confusion or ambiguity. There is no room for blaming ‘Uthman ibn’Affan(ra) after that. It is enough to know that Allah has forgiven him, as is stated in the text of the Qur’an. His striving in jihad throughout his life is witness to his bravery.

‘Uthman (ra) even though he ran away from the battlefield during Uhud for some time but there is no such activity known in his later days. One of the clearest examples of his bravery is the incident of him being besieged by the rebels and not even allowed to drink water, during such situation he commanded the Muhajireen and Anssr who were with him to go to their own homes and leave him, even though they were able to protect him. His forbearance was based on his longing to meet his Lord and his desire to protect Muslim blood from being shed, even if that led to his own death.

If our response doesn’t seem satisfactory to Shiapen, and they wish to continue mocking Uthman(ra) who was forgiven by Allah, then we would like to present before them the example of their legendary twelfth(12th) Imam, who went into hiding out of fear and hasn’t showed up from more than a 1000 years.

Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from al-Hassan ibn Musa al-Khashshab from ‘Abdallah ibn Musa from ‘Abdallah ibn Bukayr from Zurarah who has said the following. “The young boy will disappear from the public sight before his rise (with divine power)” The narrator has said, “I then asked, “Why (would that has to take place)?” The Imam (a.s.) said, “He will be afraid.”(Al-Kafi, H 892, Ch. 80, h 5)

Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ja’far ibn Muhammad from al-Hassan ibn Mu‘awiya from ‘Abdallah ibn Jabala from ‘Abdallah ibn Bukayr from Zurara who has said the following. “I heard abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) say as herein below. “The person who will rise to Divine power on earth will disappear from the public sight before he will do so.” I then asked, “Why, will happen so?” He said, “He will be afraid.” He then pointed to his midsection meaning thereby being murdered.”(Al-Kafi, H 896, Ch. 80, h 9)

Through the same chain of narrators it is narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from his father, Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from ibn Bukayr from Zurara who has said the following. ” Al-Qa’im(the one who will rise with Divine Authority) will disappear before he will rise with divine power. He will suffer fear. The Imam (a.s.) pointed to his midsection, meaning thereby being murdered.”(Al-Kafi H 905, Ch. 80, h 18)

Al-Husayn ibn Ahmad has narrated from from Ahmad ibn Hilal who has said that ‘Uthman ibn ‘Isa narrated to us from Khalid ibn Najih from Zurara ibn A‘yan that abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) has said the following. “It will be necessary for the young boy to disappear from the public sight.” I then asked, “Why it will be necessary?” He said, “Because he will have fear. (Al-Kafi, H 916, Ch. 80, h 29)

Ironically, Esteemed Shia scholars such as, al-Tusi in his book al-Ghaybah page 203, al-Murtada in his book al-Shafi volume 4 page 149 and al-Mufid in his book al-Fusoul al-Mukhtarah page 395 stated:

لا سبب للغيبة ولا علة تمنعه من الظهور الا خوف الامام على نفسه من القتل

“The only reason behind the ghaybah (occultation) of the Mahdi and the reason that he cannot appear is that he fears that he will be killed.”

Therefore, we advice Shiapen that those living in a glass-house shouldn’t throw stones.

 

Second Rafidi argument:

A Rafidi stated:

[Quote]

Abu Jafar said: That day when those companions who ran away leaving Prophet(saw), some of them reached a place called A’awadh just outside Madina. Uthman bin Affan, Uqbah bin Uthman, Saad bin Uthman and two Ansars, they ran from Uhud to A’awadh outside Madina. They stay three days there and returned back to Prophet(saw). In some reports it is mentioned that Prophet(Saw) said to them: For what need did you go there?. [Tareekh Tabari, vol 2, part 1 page 186].

Also in Tafseer-e-Kabeer, Miftah-Ul-Ghaib, Written by Fakhar-Udeen-Razi ; Tareekhul-Kamaal, Volume 2, Page 60, Written by Allama Ibne Aseer ;  Tareekh Habib-Ul-Sehar, Volume1, Part3, Page 37.

[End Quote]

Response:

This is the statement of Abu Jafar Tabari, these aren’t the words of any Sahabi or Taba’ee. And At-Tabari didn’t provide any chain from where he received this information, so there is a gap of more than 200 years between them. Hence, the above statement of Tabari is chain-less, therefore unreliable.

Also refer the previous response, regarding those people who fled from battle of Uhud.

 

Third Rafidi argument:

A Rafidi stated:

[Quote]

[Sahih Muslim: “None remained with the Messenger of Allāh, peace be upon him, on some of the DAYS in which the Messenger of Allāh, peace be upon him, was fighting apart from Ṭalḥah and Sa’d. They both (i.e. Ṭalḥah and Sa’d) narrated that to me.” ]

From this report the Rafidi concluded that everyone else fled leaving the Messenger of Allah (saw) alone except Talha and Sa’d.

[End Quote]

Response:

We say that, in this report there is no mention ‘Ali(ra) and this narration does not give an exception to him as well.

If we take this narration as per the unscientific and biased understanding of the Rafidi, then we have to accept that even ‘Ali, ‘Ammar, Miqdad bin Aswad were among those who fled as they also took part in battle and are not mentioned in the above hadith. However the narration is about that time when the enemy attacked Muslims from behind and they were dispersed. All of them were dispersed and raided by disbelievers including ‘Ali (ra).

Many companions were dispersed after the fierce attack of enemies so much so that they couldn’t find the Messenger of Allah(saw) in rush. For some time the rumour was on its peak that the Prophet(saw) was martyred. While most of them believed it and were disappointed to not find the Messenger of Allah(saw) among them but when they realized the truth they re-organized themselves against the enemy. According to a narration even ‘Ali(ra) was not aware of life or death of the Prophet(saw).

Abu Ya’la relates in his Musnad (546) and ‘Diya Al-Maqdisi in “Al-Mukhtarah” (675) through Muhammad bin Marwan al-‘Uqaili from ‘Umarah bin Abi Hafsah from ‘Ikrimah from ‘Ali(ra):

لَمَّا انْجَلَى النَّاسُ عَنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَوْمَ أُحُدٍ، نَظَرْتُ فِي الْقَتْلَى فَلَمْ أَرَ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ، فَقُلْتُ: وَاللَّهِ مَا كَانَ لِيَفِرَّ، وَمَا أَرَاهُ فِي الْقَتْلَى، وَلَكِنْ أَرَى اللَّهَ غَضِبَ عَلَيْنَا بِمَا صَنَعْنَا فَرَفَعَ نَبِيَّهُ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ، فَمَا فِيَّ خَيْرٌ مِنْ أَنْ أُقَاتِلَ حَتَّى أُقْتَلَ، فَكَسَرْتُ جَفْنَ سَيْفِي، ثُمَّ حَمَلْتُ عَلَى الْقَوْمِ فَأَفْرَجُوا لِي، فَإِذَا أَنَا بِرَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ بَيْنَهُمْ
Ali(ra) said: “When people disappeared away from the Messenger of Allah(saw) during the Uhud battle, I looked among the dead people but I did not see the Messenger of Allah(saw). I said: ‘By Allah he is not from those who flee and I do not see him among the dead people. But I think Allah is angry on us for what we have done so He has raised back His Prophet(saw)…till the complete narration.”

After all these, people re-united again near the Messenger of Allah(saw). Those who stood beside the Messenger of Allah(saw) to defend him were Abu Bakr,’ Umar, ‘Ali, Sa’d, Talha, Zubair, Abu ‘Ubaidah and some other companions from Ansar. This is the brief scenario of the battle of Uhud.

We read in The biography of Abu Bakr as-siddeeq by Ali Muhammad Sallabee that:

But then a number of companions fought their way towards the Prophet(saw) in order to protect him and steer him towards safety. It should come as no surprise that the first companion who reach the Prophet(saw) was Abu Bakr who was then joined by Abu Ubaidah ibn Al-Jarraah, Ali, Talhah, Az-Zubair, Umar ibn Al-Khattab, Al-Haarith ibn As-Summah, Abu Dujaanah, Sa’ad ibn Abi Waqqaas and other – May Allah be pleased with them all. (The biography of Abu Bakr as-siddeeq by Ali Muhammad Sallabee, page 118)

Point of Benefit:

Imam Bukhari narrates in Sahih (4043) a narration from Bara bin Malik that he said describing the incident of Uhud: Ab Sufyan ascended a high place and said, “Is Muhammad(saw) present amongst the people?” The Prophet said, “Do not answer him.” Abü Sufyãn said, “Is the son of Abu Quhafa present among the people?” The Prophet(saw) said, “Do not answer him.” Aba Sufyãn said, “Is the son of Al-Khattab amongst the people?” He then added, “All these people have been killed, for, were they alive, they would have replied.” On that, ‘Umar could not help saying, “You are a liar, O enemy of Allah! Allah has kept what will make you unhappy.”

This incident shows that the disbelievers of Makkah were aware of the status of Abu Bakr (ra) and ‘Umar (ra) in Muslim army that is why Abu Sufyan the chief of Makkah did not inquire about anybody except Abu Bakr and ‘Umar besides the Messenger of Allah(saw).

 

Fourth Rafidi argument:

A Rafidi stated:

[Quote]

Hazrath Aisha [ra] narrates that my father, Hazrath Abu-Bakar [ra], said: I was the first who faced the Prophet [pbuh] after we received the news that the Prophet [pbuh] was alive but injured. As I was approaching the Prophet [pbuh] somebody held me from behind. I turned around and it was Abu-Ubeydah bin Al-jarrah.

[1] Mustadrak, volume 3, Almazri, Pages 26 and 27, Written by Allamah Hakim. [2] Tareekh-Ul-Khamees, Volume1, Page 485, Written by Hussain Diar Bikiri. [3] Kanzul-Amaal, Volume 5, Page 275, Written by Ali Al-Muthaki. [4] Masnadul-Jazaar, Volume1, Page 33, Written by Imaam Ahmed bin Hambal. [5] Kurrathul-Ainain, Page 114, written by Shah Waliullah. [6] Tareekh-e-Tabari, Volume 2, Page 295.

[End Quote]

Response:

Here is the hadith from Mustadrak:

4315 – حدثنا أبو بكر بن أبي دارم الحافظ بالكوفة ثنا محمد بن عثمان بن أبي شيبة ثنا منجاب بن الحارث حدثني علي بن أبي بكر الرازي ثنا محمد بن إسحاق بن يحيى بن طلحة عن موسى بن طلحة عن عائشة رضي الله عنها قالت قال أبو بكر الصديق رضي الله عنه : لما جال الناس على رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم يوم أحد كنت أول من فاء إلى رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم فبصرت به من بعد فإذا أنا برجل قد اعتنقني من خلفي مثل الطير يريد رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم فإذا هو أبو عبيدة بن الجراح و إذا أنا برجل يرفعه مرة و يضعه اخرى فقلت : أما إذا اخطأني لأن أكون أنا هو مع رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم و يجيئ طلحة فذاك أنا وأمر فانتهينا إليه فإذا طلحة يرفعه مرة و يضعه اخرى و إذا بطلحة ست و ستون جراحة و قد قطعت إحداهن أكحله فإذا رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم قد ضرب على وجنتيه فلزقت حلقتان من حلق المغفر في وجنتيه فلما رأى أبو عبيدة ما برسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم ناشدني الله لما أن خليت بيني و بين رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم فانتزع إحداهما بثنيته فمدها فندرت و ندرت ثنيته ثم نظر إلى الأخرى فناشدني الله لما أن خليت بيني و بين رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم فانتهزها بالثنية الأخرى فمدها فندرت و ندرت ثنيته فكان أبو عبيدة أثرم الثنايا
هذا حديث صحيح الإسناد و لم يخرجاه
تعليق الذهبي قي التلخيص : ابن إسحاق متروك

In the chain of this report we find narrator Muhammad ibn Ishaq ibn Yahya ibn Talha, and he was Matrook(abandoned) as Dhahabi said in Talkhis. Therefore, the report is unreliable. And the scenario of Uhud has already been explained in previous response.

 

Fifth Rafidi argument:

A Rafidi stated:

[Quote]

حدثنا : أبو هشام الرفاعي ، قال : ، ثنا : أبوبكر بن عياش ، قال : ، ثنا : عاصم بن كليب ، عن أبيه ، قال : خطب عمر يوم الجمعة ، فقرأ : آل عمران ، وكان يعجبه إذا خطب أن يقرأها ، فلما إنتهى إلى قوله : إن الذين تولوا منكم يوم التقى الجمعان ، قال : لما كان يوم أحد هزمناهم ، ففررت حتى صعدت الجبل ، فلقد رأيتني أنزو كأنني أروى ، والناس يقولون : قتل محمد ! فقلت : لا أجد أحداًً يقول قتل محمد إلاّ قتلته ، حتى إجتمعنا على الجبل ، فنزلت : إن الذين تولوا منكم يوم التقى الجمعان
Abu Hisham al-Rifa’ee said: Abu Bakr ibn ‘Ayyash said: ‘Issam ibn Kulaib from his Father: ‘Umar made a sermon on Friday so he read Surat aal-‘Imran and he liked to recite it when he made his sermons and when he ended on “Indeed, those of you who turned back on the day the two armies met” He said: On the day of Uhud we defeated them so I fled and climbed the mountain like a goat … (until the end of the narration).

[1] Ibn Jarir al-Tabari in Jami’i al-Bayan 4/193: [2] Durr-e-Mansoor, Volume 3, Page 88, Written by Allama Sayuthi
[3] Azalatul-Kuffa, Volume 2, Maqsood, Page 49. [4] Kanzul-Emaal, Volume1, Page 238, written bi Ali Al-muthaki.

[End Quote]

Response:

The narrator -Abu Hisham ibn Yazeed al-Rifa’ee al-Kufi- is weak by consensus of the scholars of Hadith, so this narration is extremely weak and rejected.

Here’s the information about him from “Taqrib”:
6402- محمد ابن يزيد ابن محمد ابن كثير العجلي أبو هشام الرفاعي الكوفي قاضي المدائن ليس بالقوي من صغار العاشرة وذكره ابن عدي في شيوخ البخاري وجزم الخطيب بأن البخاري روى عنه لكن قد قال البخاري رأيتهم مجمعين على ضعفه مات سنة ثما وأربعين م د ق

Here’s the information about him from Siyar A`lam al-Nubala’:
وأخذ القراءة عن جماعة، وصنف كتابه في القراءات في شذوذ كثير، وهو صاحب غرائب في الحديث.
حدث عنه: مسلم، والترمذي وابن ماجة، وأحمد بن زهير، وابن خزيمة، وابن صاعد،ومحمد بن هارون الحضرمي، وعمر بن بجير، وجعفر بن محمد الجروي، والحسين المحاملي، وآخرون.
قال أحمد العجلي: لا بأس به، صاحب قرآن، قرأ على سليم، وولي قضاء المدائن.
وقال البخاري: رأيتهم مجمعين على ضعفه.
وقال ابن عقدة: حدثنا مطين، عن محمد بن عبد الله بن نمير، أن أبا هشام كان يسرق الحديث (1).
وروى أبو حاتم عن ابن نمير، قال: كان أضعفنا طلبا. وأكثرنا غرائب (2).
(…)
وقال النسائي: ضعيف (2

Therefore, the report is extremely weak and rejected.

 

Sixth Rafidi argument:

A Rafidi stated:

[Quote]

قال الراوي : قال إبن هشام : وكان ضرار لحق عمر بن الخطاب يوم أحد ، فجعل يضربه بعرض الرمح ويقول : إنج يابن الخطاب لا أقتلك !! فكان عمر يعرفها له بعد إسلامه

Ibn Hisham said: and Dirar pursued ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab on the day of Uhud and he began hitting him with the bottom of the spear…(until the end). [Seerat al-Nabi 2/281]

[End Quote]

Hadith grading: Between Ibn Hisham and the battle of Uhud are fifty years gap so this narration is Mursal and weak and it doesn’t mention him running away.

These narrations are found in several books so they’re just repetations, for example the Rafidah they’ll quote from al-Dhurr al-Manthur by al-Suyuti and make it sound as if it’s a different narration whereas in reality this is the exact same narration of ibn Jarir al-Tabari, or they might quote it from Kanzul-‘Ummal by al-Muttaqi al-Hindi and say that this is a different source whereas in reality al-Hindi quoted it from al-Suyuti who in turn quoted it from Ibn Jarir with the exact same weak Sanad.

Other things which the Rafidah might use:

-They might use the narration of Ibn Katheer in al-Seerah al-Nabawiyah who took it from al-Beihaqi with its Isnad from ‘Ammar from Abi al-Zubair from Jabir and this narration doesn’t even mention ‘Umar (ra) so it’s useless.

-They might use the saying of al-Fakhr al-Razi who is an Asha’ari in his Tafseer and his saying is not backed by any proof from the Quran or the Ahadith so it’s useless.

-They might quote the saying of an Orientalist called Marsden Jones who commented on the book al-Maghazi by al-Waqidi and the sayings of all Orientalists aren’t worth anything in Islam.

-They might use a saying from the book Mu’ujam al-Buldan by al-Hamawi and this doesn’t even have a Sanad so it’s useless.

-They may quote the sayings of Ibn abi al-Hadeed who is a Shi’ite/Mu’atazili, he is weak and his sayings are ignored altogether.

 

VI. Answering Rafidi arguments in regards to Battle of Hunain.

First Rafidi(Saba’ee) argument:

Shiapen stated:

[Quote]

Although Allah forgave the people for fleeing from Uhud, nevertheless He took a promise from people that they will never flee again from battlefield and never let Rasul (s) alone there.

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ إِذَا لَقِيتُمُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ زَحْفاً فَلاَ تُوَلُّوهُمُ الأَدْبَارَ
وَمَن يُوَلِّهِمْ يَوْمَئِذٍ دُبُرَهُ إِلاَّ مُتَحَرِّفاً لِّقِتَالٍ أَوْ مُتَحَيِّزاً إِلَى فِئَةٍ فَقَدْ بَاء بِغَضَبٍ مِّنَ اللّهِ وَمَأْوَاهُ جَهَنَّمُ وَبِئْسَ الْمَصِيرُ

[Yusufali 8:15-16] O ye who believe! when ye meet the Unbelievers in hostile array, never turn your backs to them. If any do turn his back to them on such a day – unless it be in a stratagem of war, or to retreat to a troop (of his own)- he draws on himself the wrath of Allah, and his abode is Hell,- an evil refuge (indeed)!

But what happened? Did these alleged Awliya Allah keep their promise? No, they again fled away for the fear of their lives at Hunain (in 9th Hijri), leaving Rasul (s) again alone.

لَقَدْ نَصَرَكُمُ اللّهُ فِي مَوَاطِنَ كَثِيرَةٍ وَيَوْمَ حُنَيْنٍ إِذْ أَعْجَبَتْكُمْ كَثْرَتُكُمْ فَلَمْ تُغْنِ عَنكُمْ شَيْئًا وَضَاقَتْ عَلَيْكُمُ الأَرْضُ بِمَا رَحُبَتْ ثُمَّ وَلَّيْتُم مُّدْبِرِينَ

[Yusufali 9:25] Assuredly Allah did help you in many battle-fields and on the day of Hunain: Behold! your great numbers elated you, but they availed you naught: the land, for all that it is wide, did constrain you, and ye turned back in retreat.

The books of Ahle Sunnah clearly state that in the battle of Hunayn, in which ten thousand companions (including all those who had done bay’ah under the tree) had participated, all of them fled away except four who remained steadfast, three of them were from the Prophet’s clan, Banu Hashim (‘Ali ibn Abi Talib, ‘Abbas ibn ‘Abdul Muttalib and Abu Sufyan ibn al Harith ibn ‘Abdul Muttalib) and one from another clan (‘Abdullah ibn Mas’ud).”
Tarikh al Khamis, vol 2. p. 113 As Sirah al Halabiyah. vol. 3. p 255

(Screen shot) [End Quote]

Response:

Muhammad bin Ishaq, the Imam of Maghazi, narrates from ‘Aasim bin ‘Umar bin Qatadah from Abdur-Rahman bin Jabir bin ‘Abdullah from his father and in it he mentions those who remained with the Prophet (saw):
Among his family members:
1.   ‘Ali
2.   Abu Sufyan bin Harith bin ‘Abdul Muttalib
3.   Rabi’ah bin Harith bin ‘Abdul Muttalib
4.   Fadhl bin ‘Abbas
5.   ‘Abbas bin Abdul Muttalib
Among others:
1.   Abu Bakr
2.   ‘Umar
3.   Usamah bin Zaid
4.   Ayman bin ‘Ubaid
It was recorded by Ibn Hisham in Seerah (2/443), Ahmad bin Hanbal in Musnad (15027) and Al-Bayhaqi in Dalail an-Nubuwwah (5/126-127). Most of the authors on Seerah do mention it.

Number of sahaba who stood firm with the prophet(saw):

روى الترمذي
1739 – حدثنا محمد بن عمر بن علي المقدمي حدثني أبي عن سفيان بن حسين عن عبيد الله بن عمر عن نافع عن ابن عمر قال:
– (لقد رأيتنا يوم حنين وإن الفئتين لموليتان وما مع رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم مائة رجل) .
At-Tirmidi narrated: After giving chain of narrator till Ibn Umar who said: I have seen on the day of Hunain two groups turned their backs and there was with the messenger of Allah (saw) 100 men.

وروى أحمد والحاكم من حديث عبد الرحمن بن عبد الله بن مسعود عن أبيه قال: ” كنت مع النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم يوم حنين فولى عنه الناس؛ وثبت معه ثمانون رجلا من المهاجرين والأنصار،
Ahmed and Al-Hakim narrated from hadeeths of Abdul Rahman bin Abdullah bin Masud from his father who said: “We were with the messenger of Allah (saw) on the day of Hunain when people deserted him, and those who stood firm where 80 men from Muhajirin and Al-Ansar.

We say: There is an agreement that a group of companions remained with the Prophet (saw) and they did not flee. In a tradition narrated by Tirmidhi (1689) –Ibn Hajar said it is Hasan and Al-Albani considered it Sahih – through Ibn ‘Umar (ra) that less than hundred people remained with the Prophet (saw) during Hunain. Hence, as long as there is a possibility that a companion could be among those who were steady with the Prophet (saw) one must abstain from speculating that such and such person fled from the battlefield. If Allah wanted to character-assassin someone He would have done so by taking names but rather He forgave them. We know from the above narration that Abu Bakr and ‘Umar were steady in the battlefield, but even those who are not mentioned should not be accused directly of fleeing unless if there is a proof that so and so person left the battlefield. This is the best and safe methodology based on Qur’anic principles.

Also, it is to be mentioned that after fleeing from the battlefield they returned back to the Prophet (saw). Hence, they were forgiven by Allah.

Another thing is that they did not flee because they were coward. Qur’an never calls them coward. If they were coward then how come they came to face the enemy who was larger in number? Even when they left away they returned back again to fight with the enemy. A coward never endangers his life for someone else. We know the cases of hypocrites who would leave the army before entering the battlefield or rather give excuses to not join the battle. The Hunain incident was in when the army of Hawazin all of a sudden started shooting arrows, so the Muslims were shattered and dispersed to save their life leaving aside the Messenger of Allah(saw). This no doubt was a sin but Allah had forgiven them and they again went for Tabuk to fight for the cause of Allah.

 

Second Rafidi argument:

A Rafidi stated:

[Quote]

To show that ‘Umar (ra) fled from the battlefield a Rafidi(Saba’ee) quoted a narration as follows:
Al-Layth – Yaḥyā b. Sa’īd – ‘Umar b. Kathīr b. Aflaḥ – Abū Muḥammad, freed slave of Abū Qatādah – Narrated Abu Qatada:

When it was the day of (the battle of) Hunain, I saw a Muslim man fighting with one of the pagans and another pagan was hiding himself behind the Muslim in order to kill him. So I hurried towards the pagan who was hiding behind the Muslim to kill him, and he raised his hand to hit me but I hit his hand and cut it off. That man got hold of me and pressed me so hard that I was afraid (that I would die), then he knelt down and his grip became loose and I pushed him and killed him. The Muslims (excepting the Prophet(saw) and some of his companions) started fleeing and I too, fled WITH THEM. Suddenly I met `Umar bin Al-Khattab amongst THE PEOPLE and I asked him, “What is wrong with THE PEOPLE?” He said, “It is the order of Allah” Then THE PEOPLE returned to Allah’s Messenger(saw) (after defeating the enemy). [Sahih al-Bukhari 4322]

[End Quote]

Response:

By highlighting the phrase “the people” the Rafidi(Saba’ee) here wants to show us that everyone from the companions fled without exception. The only exception he might give to anyone is ‘Ali(ra). This is a fact that by a generalized term many a times a large portion is also intended instead of each and every individual. This is something obvious, not only in Arabic, but in any language.

His second contention in the above hadith is that since Abu Qatadah found ‘Umar (ra) among the people that means he must be running away. We say: Abu Qatadah did not say ‘Umar was also fleeing with others. If Umar (ra) was with Abu Qatada and those Muslims who were defeated (fleeing), then why did not Abu Qatada say “And Umar was amongst us” instead of saying Umar was amongst the people?. Abu Qatada only found ‘Umar in the rush of the people, this is all what the narration indicates and whatever these Rawafidh conclude from it is based on mere conjecture and speculation. It is possible that ‘Umar was stopping them and trying to make them silent and steady. Even the Prophet(saw) was calling them and stopping them from running away. This is besides the fact that there is a narration quoted earlier which shows that ‘Umar(ra) did not run away.

There is another version for the same hadeeth found in Bukhari which also does not give slightest indication that Umar (ra) was amongst those who took to flight”

Narrated Abu Qatada: We set out in the company of Allah’s Messenger (saw) on the day (of the battle) of Hunain. When we faced the enemy, the Muslims retreated and I saw a pagan throwing himself over a Muslim. I turned around and came upon him from behind and hit him on the shoulder with the sword He (i.e. the pagan) came towards me and seized me so violently that I felt as if it were death itself, but death overtook him and he released me. I followed `Umar bin Al Khattab and asked (him), “What is wrong with the people (fleeing)?” He replied, “This is the Will of Allah,” (Sahih al-Bukhari #3142)

And had the Rafidi taken up little effort to look into the sharh of the hadeeth, he would have saved some dignity, in case they have it.

Sharh Muslim (by Imam Nawawi)
قوله: (كانت للمسلمين جولة) بفتح الجيم أي انهزام وخيفة ذهبوا فيها، وهذا إنما كان في بعض الجيش.
Imam Al-Nawawi commenting on this hadeeths said…that the retreat or defeat was in some of the army (not all).

Sharh Bukhari (by Ibn Hajar)
قوله‏:‏ ‏(‏فلما التقينا كانت للمسلمين جولة‏)‏ بفتح الجيم وسكون الواو أي حركة فيها اختلاف، وقد أطلق في رواية الليث الآتية بعدها أنهم انهزموا، لكن بعد القصة التي ذكرها أبو قتادة، وقد تقدم في حديث البراء أن الجميع لم ينهزموا‏.
Similar comment was also made by Ibn Hajr in his sharh Bukhari who said: ‘and it is mentioned in the narration of Al-Laith which will follow that they were defeated, but (the defeat was) after the story which Abu Qatada mentioned, and it has been preceded in the hadeeths of Al-Bar’a that all were not defeated.’

Hadeeth and Books of Seerah explicitly state that Umar(ra) was among those who did not flee.

(i). We read the SAHIH Hadith in “Musnad Ahmad” volume 23 page 274 Hadith #14731:
فَانْطَلَقَ النَّاسُ إِلَّا أَنَّ مَعَ رَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّىاللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ رَهْطًا مِنَ الْمُهَاجِرِينَ وَالْأَنْصَارِ، وَأَهْلِ بَيْتِهِغَيْرَ كَثِيرٍ، ثَبَتَ مَعَهُ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ وَعُمَرُ،وَمِنْ أَهْلِ بَيْتِهِ، عَلِيُّ بْنُ أَبِي طَالِبٍ، وَالْعَبَّاسُ بْنُ عَبْدِ الْمُطَّلِبِ،وَابْنُهُ الْفَضْلُ بْنُ عَبَّاسٍ، وَأَبُو سُفْيَانَ بْنُ الْحَارِثِ، وَرَبِيعَةُبْنُ الْحَارِثِ، وَأَيْمَنُ بْنُ عُبَيْدٍ وَهُوَ ابْنُ أُمِّ أَيْمَنَ، وَأُسَامَةُبْنُ زَيْدٍ، قَالَ: وَرَجُلٌ مِنْ هَوَازِنَ عَلَى جَمَلٍ لَهُ أَحْمَرَ فِي يَدِهِرَايَةٌ لَهُ سَوْدَاءُ فِي رَأْسِ رُمْحٍ طَوِيلٍ لَهُ أَمَامَ النَّاسِ، وَهَوَازِنُخَلْفَهُ

Ya’qoub narrated from his Father from Ibn Ishaq from ‘Assim ibn ‘Umar bin Qatada from ‘Abdul-Rahman ibn Jabir from Jabir ibn ‘Abdullah: The people retreated but the Prophet(saw) was accompanied by a group from the Mouhajirun and the Ansar and his Ahlul-Bayt, Those who held their ground and stayed with him were Abu Bakr an ‘Umar and from his Ahlul-Bayt ‘Ali ibn abi Talib and al-‘Abbas bin ‘Abdul-Mutallib and his son al-Fadl and Abu Suffiyan bin al-Harith and Raba’iyah bin al-Harith and Ayman bin ‘Ubeid and he is ibn Umm-Ayman and Usamah ibn Zaid, he said: and a Man from Hawzan (until the end of the narration).

(ii). This is also mentioned in the book “Majma’a al-Zawaed” under “Kitab al-Maghazi wal Siyar” in the chapter “Ghazwat Hunein” Hadith # 10265:

وعن جابر بن عبد الله قال : لما استقبلنا وادي حنين قال : انحدرنا في واد من أودية تهامة أجوف حطوط إنما ننحدر فيه انحدارا ، قال : وفي عماية الصبح ، وقد كان القوم قد كمنوا لنا في شعابه ، وفي أجنابه ، ومضائقه ، قد أجمعوا وتهيئوا وأعدوا
قال : فوالله ما راعنا ونحن منحطون إلا الكتائب قد شدت علينا شدة رجل واحد ، وانهزم الناس راجعين فانشمروا لا يلوي أحد على أحد
وانحاز رسول الله – صلى الله عليه وسلم – ذات اليمين ، ثم قال : ” إلي أيها الناس ، إلا أن مع رسول الله – صلى الله عليه وسلم – رهطا من المهاجرين والأنصار ، وأهل بيته غير كثير
وفي من ثبت معه أبو بكر وعمر ، عليهما السلام ، ومن أهل بيته علي بن أبي طالب ، والعباس بن عبد المطلب ، وابنه الفضل بن عباس ، وأبو سفيان بن الحارث ، وربيعة بن الحارث ، وأيمن بن عبيد وهو ابن أم أيمن ، وأسامة بن زيد ، عليهما السلام
قال : ورجل من هوازن على جمل له أحمر ، في يده راية له سوداء في رأس رمح له طويل أمام الناس وهوازن خلفه ، فإذا أدرك طعن برمحه ، فإذا فاته الناس رفع لمن وراءه فاتبعوه

(iii). Al-Bidaya wal-Nihaya of Ibn Kathir:
فلما رأى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم أمر الناس ومعه رهط من أهل بيته‏:‏ علي بن أبي طالب، وأبو سفيان ابن الحارث بن عبد المطلب، وأخوه ربيعة بن الحارث بن عبد المطلب، والفضل بن العباس، وقيل الفضيل بن أبي سفيان، وأيمن ابن أم أيمن، وأسامة بن زيد‏.‏
ومن الناس من يزيد فيهم قثم بن العباس، ورهط من المهاجرين‏:‏ منهم أبو بكر، وعمر، والعباس آخذ بحكمة بغلته البيضاء وهو عليها قد شجرها‏.‏
It mentions the names of those who stood firm with prophet…(and group of Al-Ansar: Among them Abu Bakr, Umar and Abbas…)

Similarly, we read in Tafsir Ibn Kathir:

There remained between a hundred and eighty Companions with the Prophet . These included Abu Bakr, `Umar, Al-`Abbas, `Ali, Al-Fadl bin `Abbas, Abu Sufyan bin Al-Harith, Ayman the son of Umm Ayman and Usamah bin Zayd. (Tafsir Ibn Kathir)

(iv). Al-Seerah Al-Nabawi of ibn Hisham:

من ثبت معه صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏:‏
وفيمن ثبت معه من المهاجرين أبو بكر وعمر ، ومن أهل بيته علي بن أبي طالب والعباس بن عبدالمطلب ، وأبو سفيان بن الحارث ، وابنه ، والفضل بن العباس ، وربيعة بن الحارث ، وأسامة بن زيد ، وأيمن بن عبيد ، قتل يومئذ ‏.‏
Those who stood firm with the Messenger :
And those who stood firm with him from among the Muhajirin were Abu Bakr and Umar, and from Ahlul Bayt Ali bin Abi Talib and Abbas bin Abdul Muttalib…

(v). Tariq Al-Rusool Wal-Mulook of At-Tabari
رواية الطبري في كتابه تاريخ الرسل والملوك التي ذكر فيها ثبات سيدنا ابوبكر وعمر وعلي رضي الله عنهما يوم حنين
إلا أنه قد بقي مع رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم نفر من المهاجرين والأنصار وأهل بيته. وممن ثبت معه من المهاجرين أبو بكر، عمر، ومن أهل بيته علي بن أبي طالب، والعباس بن عبد المطلب، وأبنه الفضل، وأبو سفيان بن الحارث،
At-Tabari narrated in his book Tariq Al-Rusool Wal-Mulook where he mentions the firmness of Abu Bakr, Umar and Ali (may Allah be pleased with them all) on the day of Al-Hunain.

There remain with Messenger of Allah (saw) group of Muhajirin and Ansar and from his Ahlul Bait. And among those who stood firm from Al-Muhajirin were Abu Bakr, Umar and from his Ahlul Bayt Ali bin Abi Talib, Abbas bin Abdul Muttalib,…

(vi). Al-Maghazi
قال حدثني عبد الرحمن بن عبد العزيز عن عاصم بن عمرو بن قتادة ، عن عبد الرحمن بن جابر بن عبد الله عن أبيه قال لما انكشف الناس والله ما رجعت راجعة هزيمتهم حتى وجد الأسرى عند النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم مكتفين . قال والتفت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يومئذ إلى أبي سفيان بن الحارث وهو مقنع في الحديد وكان ممن صبر يومئذ وهو آخذ بثفر بغلة النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قال من هذا ؟ قال ابن أمك يا رسول الله . ويقال إنه قال من أنت ؟ قال أخوك – فداك أبي وأمي – أبو سفيان بن الحارث . فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم نعم أخي ، ناولني حصى من الأرض فناولته فرمى بها في أعينهم كلهم . وانهزموا . قالوا : فلما انكشف الناس انحاز رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ذات اليمين وهو واقف على دابته لم ينزل . إلا أنه قد جرد سيفه وطرح غمده وبقي رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم في نفر من المهاجرين والأنصار وأهل بيته العباس وعلي ، والفضل بن عباس ، وأبو سفيان بن الحارث ، وربيعة بن الحارث ، وأيمن بن عبيد الخزرجي ، وأسامة بن زيد ، وأبو بكر ، وعمر عليهم السلام

Al-Waqidi in his book Al-Maghazi mentions hadeeths of Jabir bin Abdullah

The Messenger of Allah (saw) remained with a group of al-Muhajirin and al-Ansaar and from his Ahlul Bait Al-Abbas, Ali, Al-Fadl bin Abbas, Abu Sufyan Ibn Al-Harith and Rabee’a bin Al-Harith…. Abu Bakr and Umar.

(vii). Zaad Al-Ma’ad
الامام ابن القيم رحمه الله
قال ابن إسحاق : فحدثني عاصم بن عمر بن قتادة ، عن عبد الرحمن بن جابر ، عن أبيه جابر بن عبد الله ، قال لما استقبلنا وادي حنين ، انحدرنا في واد من أودية تهامة أجوف حطوط إنما ننحدر فيه انحدارا . قال وفي عماية الصبح وكان القوم سبقونا إلى الوادي ، فكمنوا لنا في شعابه وأحنائه ومضايقه قد أجمعوا ، وتهيئوا ، وأعدوا فوالله ما راعنا – ونحن منحطون – إلا الكتائب قد شدوا علينا شدة رجل واحد وانشمر الناس راجعين لا يلوي أحد منهم على أحد ، وانحاز رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ذات اليمين ثم قال إلى أين أيها الناس ؟ هلم إلي أنا رسول الله أنا محمد بن عبد الله وبقي مع رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم نفر من المهاجرين والأنصار وأهل بيته وفيمن ثبت معه من المهاجرين أبو بكر وعمر ، ومن أهل بيته علي والعباس وأبو سفيان بن الحارث وابنه والفضل بن العباس ، وربيعة بن الحارث ، وأسامة بن زيد ، وأيمن ابن أم أيمن ، وقتل يومئذ .
Imam ibnul Qayyim(rh) in his book Zaad Al-Ma’ad mentions same hadeeths of Jabir bin Abdullah but through different narrator.

And there remain with the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings upon him) group from al-Muhajirin and al-Ansaar and from his Ahlul Bait, among them who stood firm from al-Muhajirin were Abu Bakr and Umar, and from his Ahlul Bayt Ali, Al-Abbas….

(viii). Al-Seerat al-Halabiyah
وانحاز رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ذات اليمين ومعه نفر قليل، منهم أبو بكر وعمر وعليّ والعباس وابنه الفضل وأبو سفيان ابن أخيه الحارث وربيعة بن الحارث ومعتب ابن عمه أبي لهب، وفقئت عينه، ولم أقف على أيهما كانت، أي ووردت في عدّ من ثبت معه روايات مختلفة، فقيل مائة، وقيل ثمانون، وقيل اثنا عشر، وقيل عشرة، وقيل كانوا ثلاثمائة.
The Messenger (saw) moved to his right and with him were few people, among them Abu Bakr and Umar and Ali and Abbas and his son, Al-fadel Abu Sufyan….. those who stood firm with him (saw) there are different narrations, it is said hundred, and it is said eighty, and it is said twelve, and it is said ten, and it is said three hundred.

(ix). Muhammad bin Ishaq, the Imam of Maghazi, narrates from ‘Aasim bin ‘Umar bin Qatadah from Abdur-Rahman bin Jabir bin ‘Abdullah from his father and in it he mentions those who remained with the Prophet (saw): Among his family members: ‘Ali, Abu Sufyan bin Harith bin ‘Abdul Muttalib, Rabi’ah bin Harith bin ‘Abdul Muttalib,  Fadhl bin ‘Abbas, ‘Abbas bin Abdul Muttalib. Among others: Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, Usamah bin Zaid, Ayman bin ‘Ubaid [It was recorded by Ahmad bin Hanbal in Musnad (15027) and Al-Bayhaqi in Dalail an-Nubuwwah (5/126-127).]

By reading this hadeeth carefully and also after looking at other reports, the event thus can be explained in the following manner: “When the enemy launched its brutal and surprise attack on Muslim fighters, Abu Qatada was busy fighting and repelling the aggression when all of a sudden he notices that Muslims forces retreating, so in a confused state he too retreats with them. While retreating, he notices Umar(ra) among group of people (i.e. steadfast fighters) and asks him about the retreat of those Muslim fighters. To that Umar(ra) replies, “It is the decree of Allah”.

 

Third Rafidi argument:

Shiapen stated:

[Quote]

Let’s also see the testimony of Abu Qatada about Hunain, which is noted by Imam Bukhari in his Sahih:

Narrated Abu Qatada:

We set out in the company of Allah’s Apostle on the day (of the battle) of Hunain. When we faced the enemy, the Muslims retreated and I saw a pagan throwing himself over a Muslim. I turned around and came upon him from behind and hit him on the shoulder with the sword He (i.e. the pagan) came towards me and seized me so violently that I felt as if it were death itself, but death overtook him and he released me. I followed ‘Umar bin Al Khattab and asked (him), “What is wrong with the people (fleeing)?” He replied, “This is the Will of Allah,”
Sahih Bukhari Volume 4, Book 53, Number 370

For the centuries we are asking Nawasib to tell us if their Hero Umar Ibn Khattab received a revelation from Allah (swt) for his statement i.e. “It is the order of Allah” and up till now Nawasib haven’t replied us that from where Umar came to know the order of Allah for fleeing.

(Screen shot) [End Quote]

Response:

If the Rafidah(Saba’ees) are unaware of something called Qadha and Qadr or Al-Lauh Al-Mahfuz, then they must take some basic Islamic education before criticizing Sahaba out of ignorance. Everything which happens, good or bad is Allah’s decree upon his slave. Similarly when Umar (ra) was asked why were Muslims defeated or fleeing, his reply was of a steadfast believer, that is “It was Allah’s will or decree”

We read in Quran: {No calamity befalls on the earth or in yourselves but is inscribed in the Book of Decrees (Al-Lauh Al-Mahfuz), before We bring it into existence. Verily, that is easy for Allah}. (Quran 57:22)

Infact it was Allah’s will that Muslims should be taught a lesson, so that they never again take up the notion that victory could be gained by large numbers, but victory only comes from Allah.

[Truly Allah has given you victory on many battle fields, and on the Day of Hunain (battle) when you rejoiced at your great number but it availed you naught and the earth, vast as it is, was straitened for you, then you turned back in flight. (Quran 9:25)]

So the decree of Allah on the day of Al-Hunain was to give victory to Muslims just with few steadfast fighters (like Abu Bakr, Umar, Ali etc)..…so indeed how true were the words of the great Sahabi Umar (ra) when he said… “It is the decree of Allah”.

 

VII. Answering Rafidi arguments in regards to Battle of Khayber.

First Rafidi(Saba’ee) argument:

RTS stated:

[Quote]

Narrated Alee (a.s): The Messenger of Allah (saw) went out to Khaybar. When he reached it, he sent Umar and a group of people with him to their town or their castle. They went and fought them, but they could not do anything, and Umar with his companions escaped and came back to the Prophet (saw). His companions were saying that Umar is a coward and he was saying that his companions are cowards and the Messenger of Allah (saw) got annoyed and he said: and the Messenger of Allah(saw) got annoyed and he said: “I will send a man towards them who loves Allah (swt) and his Messenger (saw) and Allah (swt) and his Messenger (saw) love him, he will fight with them until he succeeds and he is not a coward who runs away frequently!”

Footnote: Al-Muttaqi Al-Hindi, “This narration is narrated by ibn Abi Shayba and Al-Bazzar, and its chain is Hasan (Reliable).”

[End Quote]

Response:

Here is the chain for this report:

Abū al-‘Abbās Muḥammad b. Aḥmad al-Maḥbūbī – Sa’īd b. Mas’ūd – ‘Ubayd Allāh b. Mūsā – Na’īm b. Ḥakīm – Abū Mūsā al-Ḥanafī – ‘Alī

1. The narration is not authentically transmitted rather it is weak. The narrator Abu Musa al-Hanafi is probably a mistake by a scribe or a misprint otherwise this narrator is unknown. Actual narrator is Abu Maryam. He is Abu Maryam Ah-Thaqafi al-Mada’ini not the one who is called Al-Hanafi. Another narrator is Abu Maryam al-Hanafi al-Kufi whose name was Iyas bin Sabih and he was a Qadhi of Basrah and narrated from ‘Umar. Abu Maryam Ath-Thaqafi was Majhool(anonymous) as per the statement of Ad-Daarqutni. Even though An-Nasai declared a person Abu Maryam Qais al-Hanafi to be Thiqah but according to Hafiz Ibn Hajar it was his mistake when he named him Qais. An-Nasai intended Abu Maryam al-Kufi but mistakenly named him Qais. In the hadith the narrator from Abu Maryam is Nu’aym bin Hakeem an inhabitant of Mada’in. Therefore it is easy to identify his teacher as Abu Maryam al-Mada’ini Ath-Thaqafi. The narration in “Al-Mustadrak” named him as Abu Maryam al-Hanafi however that is most probably from some of the transmitters as Iyas bin Sabeeh was well famous while the teacher of Nu’aim bin Hakeem was hardly known. Refer to Tahdheeb at-Tahdheeb by Hafiz bin Hajar al-‘Asqalani.

2. Shia translated the verb “Ha za ma” as “escape” which is not accurate. Rather it should be translated as “to defeat” and in sigha of Majhool as “to be defeated”. Hence the meaning given in the narration is that they were defeated. They did fight but could not conquer Khayber and lost the fight.

3. If ‘Umar was such a coward then why the Prophet(saw) sent him as an Ameer in expedition towards Najd few months after Khayber?

4. We see that the narrators were very much frank in narrating about any incident they come to know. Hence, we see that the case of ‘Uthman running from Uhud was well known to the extent that an unknown person came to make argument on it with Abdullah bin ‘Umar. If ‘Umar would have been cowardly then people would have mentioned it even with an excuse they could provide.

5. The text says that they accused each other of cowardice is not a proof of declaring one a coward, similar to the case when Abbas(ra) called Ali(ra) as sinful, treacherous, dishonest and liar, is not a proof against Ali(ra). [See Sahih Muslim, Book 19, Hadith 4349]. All this is when the hadith is authentic which is not the case, since it is weak.

6. As for the claim that, Ali Muttaqi declared it Hasan!!! Then it is because, he might have considered the original narrator to be Abu Maryam al-Kufi instead of Abu Maryam Al-Mada’ini(Majhool) and based on this mistake he erroneously declared it Hasan. We don’t believe our scholars to be infallible, they are prone to errors, similar to Shia scholars for example.

Grand Shia Āyat Allāh Ĥusayn `Alī al-Muntažarī stated:

واعتقاد الكليني بصحة الرواية ليس من الحجج الشرعية إذ ليس هو معصوما عندنا

The belief of al-Kulaynī about the correctness of traditions is not a legal proof because he is not an infallible according to us!” [Dirāsāt fī al-Makāsib al-Muĥarrama, of Ĥusayn `Alī al-Muntažarī, volume 3, page 123]

We view the erroneous grading of our Scholar in the same way.

 

Second Rafidi argument:

RTS then quoted another report:

[Quote]

Narrated Abdulrahman ibn Abi Laili: I said to Alee (a.s), “You used to wear a cloak and thick clothes in the extreme hot days and wearing two thin cloths in the extreme cold days and came out and do not fear the cold weather.” Alee (a.s) said to me: “Were you not with us on the day of Khaybar O Aba Laili?” I said: “Yes, by Allah (swt) I was with you!” He (a.s) said: “The Messenger of Allah (saw) sent Aboo Bakr with people, they ran away and returned to him (saw), then the Messenger of Allah (saw) sent Umar with people and he also ran away and came back with people to the Messenger of Allah (saw), then the Messenger of Allah (saw) said: ‘I will give the flag to a man who loves Allah (swt) and his Messenger (saw) and Allah (swt) and his Messenger (saw) love him, he will be victorious, he is not a coward who runs away frequently!’

Footnote: Al-Muttaqi Al-Hindi: ‘This narration is narrated by ibn Abi Shayba, Ahmad in his Musnad, ibn Majah, Al-Bazzar, ibn Jarir and he has Authenticated this Hadeeth, and Al-Tabarani in Al-Awsat, Al-Hakim, Bayhaqi in Al-Dalahil and Dhia Al-Maqdesi in Al-Mukhtara.
Source: Kanz-ul-Ummal. Vol. 13, Pg. # 120-122, H. # 36388.

[End Quote]

Response:

This hadeeth is of Abdur-Rahman bin Abi Laila from his father. It has been reported in Musnad (778) of Imam Ahmad, Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah (32080), Ibn Majah (117) and others through the chain of Muhammad bin Abdur-Rahman bin Abi Lailah from Minhaal from Abdur-Rahman bin Abi Lailah who report the incident of his father with Ali (ra) which include this hadith of the Prophet (saw). Muhammad bin Abdur-Rahman bin Abi Lailah was the one regarding whom Shu’bah said, “I have not seen a person who has as bad memory as Ibn Abi Lailah.”

Al-Bazzar also quotes it in Musnad (496) with the same chain of narrators. RTS quoted it from Kanz al-‘Ummal where it has been copied from Bazzar and Ibn Jareer. The reference of Musnad al-Bazzar has already been given, as for Ibn jareer then most probably he narrated it in his Tahdheeb al-Aathar which unfortunately is partially available now. We could not find it in the available portion of the book but since we have seen the methodology of Ibn Jareer in this book therefore we can say that it is nothing odd if he had declared it authentic. It is his norm in this book to declare a hadith to be authentic with the indication that this could not be authentic as per the standard of other scholars. He has unique methodology in this particular book as far as authenticity is concerned. He narrates a hadith then declare it authentic then points out the defects based on which other scholars might consider it weak, and then he skips without clarifying why he has considered it authentic ignoring the defects he himself pointed out. Therefore, just as the Shia Ayatullah said regarding the grading of Kulayni, we say the same regarding the grading of Ibn Jarir. Grand Āyat Allāh Ĥusayn `Alī al-Muntažarī stated: “The belief of al-Kulaynī about the correctness of traditions is not a legal proof because he is not an infallible according to us!” [Dirāsāt fī al-Makāsib al-Muĥarrama, of Ĥusayn `Alī al-Muntažarī, volume 3, page 123]

After quoting this hadith in Majma az-Zawaid (9/124) Hafiz Haythami said: “Al-Bazzar narrated it. It contains Muhammad bin ‘Abdur-Rahman bin Abi Laila who had bad memory. All other of its narrators were the narrators of Sahih.”

Hafiz Busiri quotes it in Ithaf al-Khirah al-Maharah (6633) and said: Abu Bakr Ibn Abi Shaibah narrated its Isnad is weak due to weakness of Muhammad Ibn Abi Lailah.”

 

VIII. Answering Rafidi arguments in regards to Hijrah of Abu Bakr(ra) with Prophet(saw).

Rafidi argument:

Shiapen stated:

[Quote]

One such alleged ‘Wali Allah’ of Nawasib was weeping for the fear of his life in the cave of Thawr. Need we to tell you more about this alleged Wali Allah? -End quote- {Screen shot}

Similarly, we read in Shia Commentary by Pooya/M.A. Ali

Verse 9:40

As has been mentioned therein, inside the cave, the companion of the Holy Prophet, Abu Bakr, was frightened and had started crying in anguish when he heard the voices of the enemy. Then the Holy Prophet said:

“Do not fear. Allah is with us.”

Compare this fear to the tranquillity of Ali described in the commentary of verse 207 of al Baqarah which was revealed to honour and glorify Ali.

[End Quote]

Response:

Let us first quote the verse based on which the Rafidah base their argument. Allah(swt) said in Quran:

Illa tansuroohu faqad nasarahu Allahu ith akhrajahu allatheena kafaroo thaniya ithnayni ith huma fee alghari ith yaqoolu lisahibihi la tahzan inna Allaha maAAana faanzala Allahu sakeenatahu AAalayhi waayyadahu bijunoodin lam tarawha wajaAAala kalimata allatheena kafaroo alssufla wakalimatu Allahi hiya alAAulya waAllahu AAazeezun hakeemun

If you do not aid the Prophet – Allah has already aided him when those who disbelieved had driven him out [of Makkah] as one of two, when they were in the cave and he said to his companion, “Do not grieve; indeed Allah is with us.” And Allah sent down his tranquillity upon him and supported him with angels you did not see and made the word of those who disbelieved the lowest, while the word of Allah – that is the highest. And Allah is Exalted in Might and Wise.(9:40/ Sahih International)

If you do not help him, (Muhammad), God has already helped him. When the unbelievers expelled him and he was one of the two people in the cave telling his friend, “Do not worry; God is with us,” then God gave him confidence and supported him with an army which you did not see and He defeated the cause of the disbelievers and made His own cause stand supreme. God is Majestic and All-wise.(9:40/Shia Translator Muhammad Sarwar)

The Arabic word in this verse(9:40) is Tahzan which means Grieve. The word used wasn’t Khauf which means Fear. The words “Grieve not” are commonly said when a close one is grieving; for example, when a woman’s child dies, then people will tell her “grieve not” as a means to console her. Therefore, if Abu Bakr(ra) feared for his own life, then the wordings would have been Khauf(fear) not Tahzan(grieve). But we know that the Rafidi propagandists will never allow us to simply use common sense, so we will bolster our answer by quoting other verses in the Quran in which the words “grieve not” are used, as a solace to cheer someone up who is grieving. Allah Almighty says:

“But a voice cried to her [Mariam from beneath the palm-tree: Grieve not! For your Lord has made a stream to flow beneath you.’” (Quran, 19:24).

These words are used for Mariam(as), the blessed mother of Prophet Isa(as). She is grieving and worrying, and so it is said to her as a solace “grieve not.”

And be patient, [O Muhammad], and your patience is not but through Allah . And do not grieve over them and do not be in distress over what they conspire.(Quran 16:127)

These words are used for Prophet Muhammad(Saw) whom Allah asks to “be patient” and “grieve not.”

The Rafidi version is very comical indeed. They attempt to do whatever they can to color the event and make Abu Bakr(ra) look like a coward. Whereas, the fact is that, Abu Bakr(ra) was the bravest companion of all that he risked his life to accompany the Prophet(saw) on this very dangerous mission. The Quraish were on high alert when they found out that the Prophet(saw) left Mecca. Why would Abu Bakr(ra) choose to accept this risky mission, if he feared his life?

The truth is that Abu Bakr(ra) was worried and grieving but he was not fearful of his own life, but rather he was worried about the Prophet(saw) more than himself. Abu Bakr(saw) was worried about the Prophet(saw) since he knew of the treatment they did with Prophet(saw) in Makkah, how they hurt him and harmed him. So there is nothing cowardly in this act of Abu Bakr(ra), rather it is the love and concern of Abubakr(ra) for Prophet(Saw).

We read in Sahih ibn Hibban

أَخْبَرَنَا الْفَضْلُ بْنُ الْحُبَابِ الْجُمَحِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ رَجَاءٍ الْغُدَانِيُّ، أَخْبَرَنَا إِسْرَائِيلُ، عَنْ أَبِي إِسْحَاقَ، قَالَ: سَمِعْتُ الْبَرَاءَ، يَقُولُ: اشْتَرَى أَبُو بَكْرٍ مِنْ عَازِبٍ رَحْلا بِثَلاثَةَ عَشَرَ دِرْهَمًا، فَقَالَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ لِعَازِبٍ: مُرِ الْبَرَاءَ فَلْيَحْمِلْهُ إِلَى أَهْلِي، فَقَالَ لَهُ عَازِبٌ لا، حَتَّى تُحَدِّثْنِي كَيْفَ صَنَعْتَ أَنْتَ وَرَسُولَ اللَّهِ حِينَ خَرَجْتُمَا مِنْ مَكَّةَ وَالْمُشْرِكُونَ يَطْلُبُونَكُمْ، فَقَالَ: ” ارْتَحَلْنَا مِنْ مَكَّةَ، فَأَحْيَيْنَا لَيْلَتَنَا حَتَّى أَظْهَرَنَا، وَقَامَ قَائِمُ الظَّهِيرَةِ رَمَيْتُ بِبَصَرِي هَلْ نَرَى ظِلا نَأْوِي إِلَيْهِ، فَإِذَا أَنَا بِصَخْرَةٍ فَانْتَهَيْتُ إِلَيْهَا، فَإِذَا بَقِيَّةُ ظِلِّهَا، فَسَوَّيْتُهُ، ثُمَّ فَرَشْتُ لِرَسُولِ اللَّهِ ثُمَّ قُلْتُ: اضْطَجِعْ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ، فَاضْطَجَعَ، ثُمَّ ذَهَبْتُ أَنْظُرُ هَلْ أَرَى مِنَ الطَّلَبِ أَحَدًا، فَإِذَا أَنَا بِرَاعِي غَنَمٍ يَسُوقُ غَنَمَهُ إِلَى الصَّخْرَةِ، يُرِيدُ مِنْهَا مِثْلَ الَّذِي أُرِيدُ يَعْنِي الظِّلَّ، فَسَأَلْتُهُ، فَقُلْتُ: لِمَنْ أَنْتَ يَا غُلامُ؟ قَالَ الْغُلامُ: لِفُلانٍ رَجُلٍ مِنْ قُرَيْشٍ، فَعَرَفْتُهُ، فَقُلْتُ: هَلْ فِي غَنَمِكَ مِنْ لَبَنٍ؟ قَالَ: نَعَمْ، فَقُلْتُ: هَلْ أَنْتَ حَالِبٌ لِي؟ قَالَ: نَعَمْ، فَأَمَرْتُهُ، فَاعْتَقَلَ شَاةً مِنْ غَنَمِهِ، وَأَمَرْتُهُ أَنْ يَنْفُضَ عَنْهَا مِنَ الْغُبَارِ، ثُمَّ أَمَرْتُهُ أَنْ يَنْفُضَ كَفَّيْهِ، فَقَالَ هَكَذَا، فَضَرَبَ إِحْدَى يَدَيْهِ عَلَى الأُخْرَى، فَحَلَبَ فِي كُثْبَةٍ مِنْ لَبَنٍ، وَقَدْ رَوَيْتُ مَعِيَ لِرَسُولِ اللَّهِ إِدَاوَةً عَلَى فَمِهَا خِرْقَةٌ، فَصَبَبْتُ عَلَى اللَّبَنِ حَتَّى بَرَدَ أَسْفَلُهُ، فَانْتَهَيْتُ إِلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ فَوَافَقْتُهُ قَدِ اسْتَيْقَظَ، فَقُلْتُ: اشْرَبْ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ، فَشَرِبَ، فَقُلْتُ: قَدْ آنَ الرَّحِيلُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ، فَارْتَحَلْنَا وَالْقَوْمُ يَطْلُبُونَنَا، فَلَمْ يُدْرِكْنَا أَحَدٌ مِنْهُمْ غَيْرُ سُرَاقَةُ بْنُ مَالِكِ بْنِ جُعْشُمٍ عَلَى فَرَسٍ لَهُ، فَقُلْتُ: هَذَا الطَّلَبُ قَدْ لَحِقَنَا يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ، قَالَ: فَبَكَيْتُ، فَقَالَ: لا تَحْزَنْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ مَعَنَا، فَلَمَّا دَنَا مِنَّا، وَكَانَ بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَهُ قَيْدُ رُمْحَيْنِ أَوْ ثَلاثَةٍ، قُلْتُ: هَذَا الطَّلَبُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ قَدْ لَحِقَنَا، فَبَكَيْتُ لَهُ، قَالَ: مَا يُبْكِيكَ؟ قُلْتُ: أَمَا وَاللَّهِ مَا عَلَى نَفْسِي أَبْكِي، وَلَكِنْ أَبْكِي عَلَيْكَ، فَدَعَا عَلَيْهِ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ وَقَالَ: اللَّهُمَّ اكْفِنَاهُ بِمَا شِئْتَ، قَالَ: فَسَاخَتْ بِهِ فَرَسُهُ فِي الأَرْضِ إِلَى بَطْنِهَا، فَوَثَبَ عَنْهَا، ثُمَّ قَالَ: يَا مُحَمَّدُ، قَدْ عَلِمْتُ أَنَّ هَذَا عَمَلُكَ، فَادْعُ اللَّهَ أَنْ يُنَجِّيَنِي مِمَّا أَنَا فِيهِ، فَوَاللَّهِ لأُعَمِّيَنَّ عَلَى مَنْ وَرَائِي مِنَ الطَّلَبِ، وَهَذِهِ كِنَانَتِي فَخُذْ مِنْهَا سَهْمًا، فَإِنَّكَ سَتَمُرُّ عَلَى إِبِلِي وَغَنَمِي فِي مَكَانِ كَذَا وَكَذَا، فَخُذْ مِنْهَا حَاجَتَكَ، فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ: لا حَاجَةَ لَنَا فِي إِبِلِكَ، وَدَعَا لَهُ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ فَانْطَلَقَ رَاجِعًا إِلَى أَصْحَابِهِ، وَمَضَى رَسُولُ اللَّهِ حَتَّى أَتَيْنَا الْمَدِينَةَ لَيْلا، فَتَنَازَعَهُ الْقَوْمُ أَيُّهُمْ يَنْزِلُ عَلَيْهِ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ: إِنِّي أَنْزَلُ اللَّيْلَةَ عَلَى بَنِي النَّجَّارِ أَخْوَالِ عَبْدِ الْمُطَّلِبِ أُكْرِمُهُمْ بِذَلِكَ، فَخَرَجَ النَّاسُ حِينَ قَدِمْنَا الْمَدِينَةَ فِي الطُّرُقِ وَعَلَى الْبُيُوتِ مِنَ الْغِلْمَانِ وَالْخَدَمِ، يَقُولُونَ: جَاءَ مُحَمَّدٌ، جَاءَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ

..AbuBakr said: Then we traveled while they were in our pursuit and they couldn’t catch up to us except for Malik bin Ju`t on his steed, I said: “O Prophet (saw), our pursuers have caught up with us!” And I cried, He (saw) then consoled me and said: “Do not grieve, Allah is with us.” But when our enemy neared us and between us and him was only a distance of two or three spear throws, I said: “O Prophet (saw), our pursuer is upon us.” And I cried for him (saw), so He (saw) said: “Why do you cry?” I answered: “I do not cry for myself but for you O Prophet (saw).” Rasul-Allah (saw) then called on Allah against him: “O Lord, defend us from him any way you wish.”… [Sahih ibn Hibban]

Similarly we read in “Ar-Raheequl Makhtum”:

Abu Bakr was not afraid for himself, but as is reported, he was worried about Allah’s Messenger saying: “If they kill me, then I am only one man. But if they kill you (O Muhammad), they will have destroyed the whole nation.” So it was then that Allah’s Messenger said, “Do not grieve, for Allah is indeed with us.” see “Mukthasar Seeratir-Rasul” Abdullah an-Najdi p.168. (Ar-Raheequl Makhtum, p.207).

Also, we read in Tafseer Ibn Kathir:

While in the cave, Abu Bakr was afraid the pagans might discover them for fear that some harm might touch the Messenger(saw) . (Tafseer Ibn Kathir, vol 4, page 430).

Similar can be read in Shia Tafseer Ruh Al-Jinan of Abu Al-Futuh Al-Razi:

حزن‌ ‌او‌ ترس‌ و خوف‌ ‌بود‌، و گفتند: چون‌ ‌او‌ ‌با‌ پيغامبر ‌بود‌، ‌او‌ مي‌ گفت‌: ‌يا ‌رسول‌ اللّه‌؟ ‌اگر‌ مرا بكشند، ‌من‌ يك‌ مردم‌ و ‌اگر‌‌ -‌ و العياذ باللّه‌‌ -‌ تو ‌را‌ مكروهي‌ رسد، امّت‌ هلاك‌ شوند
Meaning: His (Abu Bakr’s) grief and fear was, as said, was for (with) the Prophet. He (Abu Bakr) said: O Prophet of Allah, if the enemies came and saw then they God-forbid will harm you, so the Ummah will be destroyed. [Shia Tafseer Ruh Al-Jinan – 9/232] [Screen shot]

We read in the book – The Biography of Abu Bakr as-Sideeq :

[The question arises, why was Abu Bakr sad and afraid? We can be certain that he wasn’t sad or afraid on account of his own safety, for we know that Abu Bakr(ra) was, throughout his life, willing at a moment’s notice to sacrifice his life for the sake of Allah(swt). It is clear, therefore, that he was sad and afraid for another reason – sad because the Prophet(saw) was in such a desperate situation, and afraid that the Prophet(saw) would be killed and that revelation would then cease to descend.

It is for the same reason that, during the journey to Al-Madeenah, Abu Bakr(ra) would remain vigilant, making sure that no one would succeed in attacking the Prophet(saw) by surprise. Abu Bakr(ra) would sometimes walk infront of the Prophet(saw) and at other times, behind him. When the Prophet(saw) asked him why he kept changing positions, Abu Bakr(ra) responded, “When I think about someone waiting to ambush you, I walk in front of you; and when I remember that people are pursuing you, I walk behind you” (Abu Bakr As-Sideeq Afdalus-Sahaabah wa-Ahaqqihim bil-Khilaafah, page 43)

And when they entered the cave, Abu Bakr(ra) saw a hole in it; he then insisted upon entering first, for if the hole was inhabited by a poisonous animal, he would rather die himself than place the Prophet(saw) in harm’s way.(Minhaaj As-Sunnah vol 4, page 263)]

[Source: The Biography of Abu Bakr As-Sideeq by Ali Muhammad Sallabee, page 94-95].

If the above examples do not even leave a grain of doubt that Abu Bakr(ra) was worried regarding the safety of Muhammad(saw) not his ownself. And to further strengthen the fact that Abu Bakr(ra) cared for Prophet(saw) than his ownself, then we would like to present two different incidents which testify the love, care and concern Abu Bakr(ra) had for Prophet(saw).

We read about an incident that occurred in Makkah,  in Fath-ul-Bari li-ibn Hajar:

أنَّهُم قالوا لها ما أشدُّ ما رأيْتِ المشركينَ بلَغوا من رسولِ اللهِ صلَّى اللهُ عليْهِ وسلَّمَ ؟ فذكرَ نحو سياق ابن إسحاق المتقدم قريبا وفيه : فأتى الصريخُ إلى أبي بكرٍ فقال : أدرِكْ صاحبَكَ ، قالَتْ : فخرجَ من عِندِنا وله غدائرُ أربعٌ وهو يقولُ : ويلَكم أتقتلونَ رجلًا أن يقولَ ربِّي اللهُ ؟ فلَهَوا عنه ، وأقبَلوا إلى أبي بكرٍ ، فرجعَ إليْنا أبو بكرٍ فجعل لا يمسُّ شيئًا من غدائرِهِ إلا رجعَ معه وهو يقول: تباركت يا ذا الجلال والإكرام

They asked Asma’: What is the worst thing the pagans had done to Rasul-Allah (saw)? So she mentioned the story and said: The screaming reached Abu Bakr and they said to him: “Help your companion!” so he left us with braided hair, saying: “Woe to you! Would you kill a man because he says: My Lord is Allah!?” So they left the Messenger(saw) and (instead) ganged up on Abu Bakr. He finally came back (home) to us and whenever he touched his braids he said: “Glory be to You! The One Who deserves to be Exalted and not denied”. (Ibn Hajar said “Hasan”).

Similarly we read:

Abu Bakr(ra) urged the Messenger of Allah(saw) to openly preach the message of Islam, but the Prophet(saw) responded by saying, “O Abu Bakr we are(as of yet) few in number”. Abu Bakr(ra) continued to urge the Prophet(saw) to openly preach until, one day, the Muslims spread out in different parts of the Masjid, with each man remaining in the midst of his clan Abu Bakr then stood up to deliver a sermon while the Messenger of Allah(saw) remained seated. On that day, Abu Bakr(ra) became the first person(from this nation) to deliver a sermon in which he invited people unto Allah(swt) and His Messenger(saw). The polytheists did not idly listen to his sermon: instead, they became enraged and charged towards Abu Bakr(ra) and the other Muslims. In various parts of the Masjid, the Quraish were giving a severe beating to the Muslims. Abu Bakr was both trampled upon and beaten severely; Using his shoes, the evildoer Utbah ibn Rabee’ah began to viciously strike Abu Bakr on his face. So severely was Abu Bakr beaten, and so much blood flowed down his face, that it became difficult to discern between his face and the back of his head. Had the beating continued, Abu Bakr might have died; infact, even as matters stood he did almost die. But his fellow clansmen from Banu Taim came, although somewhat belatedly, to defend him. They pushed the attacking mod away and carried Abu Bakr to his home, feeling certain that he had died. Members of the Banu Taim claim then returned to the Masjid and proclaimed, “By Allah, if Abu Bakr dies, we will indeed kill Uthbah ibn Rabee’ah”. They then returned to Abu Bakr and Abu Quhaafah(his father) as well as other members of Banu Taim tried to speak to him until he finally revived at the end of the day and spoke to them. But rather than answer heir questions, and rather than worry about his own condition, Abu Bakr asked them how the Prophet(saw) was doing. Since they were not Muslims, and since they care about Abu Bakr’s welfare particularly because he was from their claim, they were rather upset by what Abu Bakr had said, and they reproached him, reminding him that he should be worried about staying alive, for though he had regained consciousness, he was still extremely weak and bruised from the beating he had taken. [Refer: As-Seerah An-Nabawiyyah by ibn Katheer(1/439-441) and Al-Bidaayah Wan-Nihhaayah(3/30)].

Points of Benefit:

1. Imam Sufyan bin ‘Uyainah [d.198 AH] said: ‘Allah admonished all of Muslims for His Prophet (saw) except for Abu Bakr alone.’ And then he recited the verse(9:40). [Tarikh Dimashq (30/93)]

2. Dr Abdul Kareem Zaidaan said:

In this verse, Allah relates that the Prophet(saw) said: “Surely Allah is with us”. In another verse in the course of discussing those who fear Allah and are good-doers, Allah said:{ Surely Allah is with those who guard (against evil) and those who do good (to others).(16:128)}. In the latter verse, Allah mentions that He is with those who fear Him and those who are good-doers, but in the former Verse no similar stipulation of quality or of a deed – fearing Allah, doing good deeds, etc – is made. Therefore, Allah being with the Messenger and his Companion is of a higher level than Allah being with those who fear Him and those who are good-doers. That Allah is with the Messenger(saw) and his companion means that He helps them with signs and miracles. [Al-Mustafaad Min-Qisas-ul-Quran vol 2, page 100].

3. Let us make a comparison between the words used by Musa(as) for his companions and Muhammad(saw) for his companion(i.e Abu Bakr).

And when the two companies saw one another, the companions of Moses said, “Indeed, we are to be overtaken!” [Moses] said, “No! Indeed, WITH ME is my Lord; He will guide me.”[Quran 26:61-62]

If you do not aid the Prophet – Allah has already aided him when those who disbelieved had driven him out [of Makkah] as one of two, when they were in the cave and he said to his companion, “Do not grieve; indeed Allah is WITH US.” And Allah sent down his tranquillity upon him and supported him with angels you did not see and made the word of those who disbelieved the lowest, while the word of Allah – that is the highest. And Allah is Exalted in Might and Wise. [Quran 9:40]

Musa(as) says to his Companions: Allah is with ME
Prophet Muhammad(saw) says to his Companion(Abu Bakr): Allah is with US.

And Quran tells us that Allah(swt) is with Momineen, Muttaqeen, Sabireen and Muhsinoon:

{because Allah is with the believers(Momineen)}.[Quran 8:19]

And fear Allah and know that Allah is with those who fear Him(Muttaqeen).[Quran 2:194]

O you who have believed, seek help through patience and prayer. Indeed, Allah is with the patient(Sabireen). [Quran 2:153]

Indeed, Allah is with those who fear Him and those who are doers of good(Muhsinoon).[Quran 16:128]

Conclusion: Abubakr(ra) was a Momin(believer), a Muttaqi, a Sabir and a Muhsin.

Note: We would also like to clarify that the words of Prophet(Saw), “Allah is WITH US” implies that Allah is with them in support. It’s not about presence of Allah nor about Allah being with them with his knowledge, because even though its incorrect belief that Allah with his self is on earth, but for argument’s sake even if we consider this belief then we realize that in this context this view is invalid, because then Allah would even be with polytheists with presence not just Prophet(saw), since they believe Allah is everywhere. And as for Allah being them with knowledge, then Allah’s knowledge encompasses heaven and earth, if it was to be with knowledge then Allah with his knowledge was even with the polytheists who were in search of Prophet(saw), Allah(swt) was well aware of them. However, what is unique and appropriate in the context of Prophet(saw) using those words was that, Allah was with them in support.  Allah(swt) was with Prophet(saw) and Abubakr(ra) in his support, but not with the polytheists, and this is what the words of Quran in this verse imply.

 

First Rafidi Objection:

[Quote]As for the assurance that ‘Allah is with us’, the pronoun ‘us’ was used by the Prophet for himself. The use of plural pronoun for oneself is a sign of one’s elevated status. [End Quote]

Response:

Unfortunately for the Rafidah, the usage of plural pronoun is nowhere to be found in Quran for Prophet(saw). It was used only for Allah(swt).

The Prophets of Allah are most clearest in their speech, if Prophet(saw) wanted to exclude Abubakr(ra) then he(saw) would have easily said that ‘Allah is with ME’ just like Musa(as) did. The idea that “we” refers to the Prophet(saw) alone is irrational, if the verse is read with proper understanding.

The words Prophet(Saw) said to Abu Bakr(ra), that “Allah is with US” were the words of solace, since Abu Bakr(ra) was grieving. Anyone who uses common sense would realize that the Rafidi argument is that, Abu Bakr(ra) was in grieve as he feared for his life, so how would these words of Prophet(Saw) comfort or assure Abu Bakr, if Prophet(saw) meant only himself? Obviously, those words were to be directed at both, inorder to assure Abu Bakr(ra) who was worried. Otherwise the words turn out to be meaningless. However the Rafidah in their bigotry and bias have shut the doors of wisdom and justice upon themselves.

And if the Rafidah agree with the Sunni understanding that, Abu Bakr(ra) was in grieve for the safety and life of Prophet(saw) and not his ownself, then this is an evidence that Abu Bakr(ra) was a true believer(momin), who preferred the safety and life of Prophet(saw) over his own self. Therefore, Prophet(saw) including Abu Bakr(ra) in his words, “Allah is with us” shouldn’t be seen as something odd by the Rafidah, since he was a true believer and Allah is with the believers. So Prophet(saw) used the plural form for both of them since the life of both was in danger not just one.

Note: We would also like to clarify that the words of Prophet(Saw), “Allah is WITH US” implies that Allah is with them in support. It’s not about presence of Allah nor about Allah being with them with his knowledge, because even though its incorrect belief that Allah with his self is on earth, but for argument’s sake even if we consider this belief then we realize that in this context this view is invalid, because then Allah would even be with polytheists with presence not just Prophet(saw), since they believe Allah is everywhere. And as for Allah being them with knowledge, then Allah’s knowledge encompasses heaven and earth, if it was to be with knowledge then Allah with his knowledge was even with the polytheists who were in search of Prophet(saw), Allah(swt) was well aware of them. However, what is unique and appropriate in the context of Prophet(saw) using those words was that, Allah was with them in support.  Allah(swt) was with Prophet(saw) and Abubakr(ra) in his support, but not with the polytheists, and this is what the words of Quran in this verse imply.

 

Second Rafidi Objection:

[Quote]

Your claim that AS-SAKINAH (serenity) was sent down to Abu Bakr is indeed outrageous…in this event of the cave, serenity was sent down to the Prophet alone, excluding Abu Bakr. This may be a pointer to the fact that Abu Bakr was not among the believers!

[End Quote]

Response:

Firstly, there is a difference of opinion upon whom Sakinah(tranquillity) was sent. Some scholars said it was on Prophet(saw) and some said it was on Abu Bakr(ra).

View 1: Sakinah(Tranquility) was sent on Prophet(saw).

The reason why the pronoun(Him) in this verse is in singular form, is because it is connected to the initial part of the verse, which is talking about helping Prophet(saw) alone, the initial part doesn’t talk about helping Prophet(saw) and Abu Bakr(ra), rather it is referring to Prophet(Saw) alone. Hence in relation to it, Allah(swt) mentioned only about Prophet(saw), the way He(swt) helped Prophet(Saw) and sent tranquillity upon him.

Let us quote the verse for the benefit of readers:

If you will not aid HIM, Allah certainly aided HIM when those who disbelieved expelled HIM, he being the second of the two, when they were both in the cave, when he said to his companion: Grieve not, surely Allah is with us. So Allah sent down His tranquillity upon HIM and strengthened HIM with hosts which you did not see, and made lowest the word of those who disbelieved; and the word of Allah, that is the highest; and Allah is Mighty, Wise.

So we see that the singular form was used in relation to the initial portion which was talking about Prophet(Saw) alone. However if we ponder over the incident of cave itself, we will realize that, it wasn’t just that Prophet(saw) alone received help of Allah(swt) and was saved from the polytheists in a miraculous way, but even Abu Bakr(ra) received the same help of Allah and was saved too, he wasn’t harmed by the polytheists in the cave. However, in this verse since Allah(swt) started off with the mention of Prophet(saw) alone and reminding the Muslims to help him, He(swt) concluded it by mentioning how He(swt) helped Prophet(Saw), even though Abu bakr(ra) too received the help of Allah(swt). So, likewise even the tranquillity was sent on Abu Bakr(ra) along with Prophet(saw), even though it was not mentioned, like how he(ra) being helped by Allah was not mentioned.

Notice that the verse nowhere negates Abu Bakr(ra) being helped by Allah or Sakinah being sent him, it silent on this issue, because of the reason mentioned, it started with talking about Prophet(saw) alone and ended talking about him alone. However, the Rafidah are so desperate and biased in their hatred that, they consider it to be a hint that Abubakr(ra) was not a believer, though this verse is an apparent evidence of Abu Bakr’s virtues and the fact that Abubakr(ra) was chosen to accompany Prophet(saw) in this dangerous journey is a clear sign of him being one of the greatest believer. And what destroys the Rafidi connotations is that, Prophet(saw) said: “Allah is with US”.

If the Rafidah out of their ignorance try to reject our reasonable explanation claiming that, Allah(swt) cannot help a believer with angels that cannot be seen and only a Prophet could be helped in such a way, then we would like to direct them towards the verse (26) of the same Surah, which states that Allah(swt) does help even the believers with the angels that cannot be seen. We read in Quran:

Then Allah sent down His tranquillity upon His Messenger and upon the believers, and sent down hosts which you did not see, and chastised those who disbelieved, and that is the reward of the unbelievers.(Quran 9:26).

Similarly we read in Quran:

When you said to the believers: Does it not suffice you that your Lord should assist YOU with three thousand of the angels sent down? (Quran 3:124)

View 2: Sakinah(Tranquility) was sent on Abu Bakr(ra).

We read in Tafseer ibn Abi Hatim:

حدثنا ابي ثنا احمد بن عبد الله بن يونس وابراهيم بن مهدي المصيصي والسياق لإبراهيم قالا: اخبرنا ابو معاوية ثنا عبد العزيز بن سياه عن حبيب بن ابي ثابت في قوله: فأنزل الله سكينته عليه، قال: نزلت على أبي بكر، فأما النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فكانت سكينته عليه قبل ذلك.

Habeeb ibn Abi Thabit(a major tabi’ee scholar, and a student of Ibn Abbas) said: It was revealed for Abu Bakr, as for Prophet(saw) Sakinah was already upon him.[Tafseer ibn Abi Hatim: Grading: Chain is Hasan(good)]

Tafsir Ibn Kathir
فقال: “يا أبا بكر ما ظنك باثنين اللّه ثالثهما” (أخرجه الشيخان عن أنس بن مالك رضي اللّه عنه)، ولهذا قال تعالى: {فأنزل اللّه سكينته عليه} أي تأييده ونصره عليه، أي على الرسول صلى اللّه عليه وسلم (في الأشهر وروي عن ابن عباس وغيره أن الضمير يعود على (أبي بكر) لأن الرسول صلى اللّه عليه وسلم لم تزل معه سكينة قال ابن كثير وهذا لا ينافي تجدد سكينة خاصة)، وقيل: على أبي بكر، لأن الرسول صلى اللّه عليه وسلم لم تزل معه سكينة،
It has been narrated from ibn Abbas and others the pronominal refers back to Abu Bakr because tranquility was already with Messenger of Allah (saw) Ibn Kathir said, ‘And this does not contravene renewal of special tranquility. And it has been said (upon) Abu Bakr because tranquility was still with Messenger of Allah (saw).

We read in Shia Tafseer Ruh Al-Jinan of Abu Al-Futuh Al-Razi:

قول‌ بعضی ‌آن‌ ‌است‌ ‌که‌: ضمير عايد ‌است‌ ‌با‌ ابو بكر، ‌براي‌ ‌آن‌ ‌که‌ سكينه‌ ‌از‌ ‌رسول‌‌ -‌ ‌عليه‌ السّلام‌‌ -‌ جدا نبود هرگز، و دگر ‌آن‌ ‌که‌: خوف‌ و حزن‌ ابو بكر ‌را‌ ‌بود‌ نه‌ ‌رسول‌ ‌را‌، ‌او‌ ‌به‌ سكينه‌ محتاج تر ‌بود‌
Meaning: Some scholars of Tafsir stated: that the pronoun (mentioning) of Tranquility (Sakinah) was for Abu Bakr, because the tranquility was never been separated from the Prophet. And others said: the fear and grief was of Abu Bakr and NOT of Prophet, because he (Abu Bakr) was dependent (in need) of tranquility.[Tafsir Ruh Al-Jinan – 9/234]

The Shia scholar has presented two different views for this matter, the one of which we quoted here. Though he doesn’t agrees with this view, rather prefers the view that the tranquility was for Prophet himself, however, the interpretation he presented of different Mufassireen (as quoted), is reasonable and understandable. The one who was in grieve was Abu Bakr(ra) so tranquillity was sent down on Abu Bakr (ra) to calm him.

[Our Lord, forgive us and [forgive] our brethren who preceded us in faith. And do not put in our hearts rancour towards the Believers. Our Lord, You are Most Kind, Most Merciful.” (Quran 59:10)]

May Allah’s (swt) blessings be upon His Messenger, his household, and companions.

13 thoughts on “The bravery of Imam Abu Bakr(ra) and Imam Umar(ra)

    • The good Lord had to intervene to stop Abu Bakr from crying whilst he and the Prophet [peace be upon Him] were in the cave.

      • As explained – He(ra) cried for the Prophet(saw), a sign of true believer. This is the reason the Prophet(SAWS) said: Allah is with US. And the good Lord approved that in his glorious book.

  1. Abu Bakr, Umar and Usman not only fled from the Battle of Uhud, they also fled from the Battles of the Ditch [Khandaq], Khyber and Hunain. If Umar was as brave as depicted why did he never fight a single duel. There is no evidence that he offered to fight Utbah, Sheba or Waleed in the Battle of Badr when they challenged Muslims to single combat. According to Umar himself, when he saw Nawfal bin Khuwalid raging like a bull in Badr, he tried to hide but Nawfal saw him and said to him:” O son of Khattab where do you flee to” Then Ali Ibn Abi Talib challenged him and killed him on the spot. There is no evidence that Umar ever accepted a challenge to single combat in any battle. If he was as brave as claimed to be: Why did he not fight Amr Ibn Abduwad in the Battle of the Ditch or Marhab the Jew in the Battle of Khyber?

    • Get a life! If you would have read the complete article before making this comment out of desperation then you would have saved some time. Your arguments have been answered in the article itself. Care to read before you comment.

      • I did read the article and I am not desperate to make a case for Ali. The history of the battles during the Prophet’s time and the valor displayed by each of his companions in every battle is well documented. The Koran mentions the condition of the Sahaba (RA) in three battles: Uhud, Azab and Hunain. The Koran testifies to the fleeing of the companions in Uhud and Hunain. As to the Battle of Azab the Koran depicts a very grim picture of their faith.”Their hearts were in their throats and heads bowed as if birds were sitting on them and they doubted the Lord”. My question remains: Amr Ibn Abduwad crossed the ditch with six warriors and thrice challenge the Prophet to send a combatant to face him. Thrice it was only Ali who stood up to accept the challenge. Thrice the Prophet told him to sit down and gave his companions the chance to accept Amr’s challenge. This was the excellent opportunity for Umar to cover himself in glory either by gaining martyrdom or victory but there is no evidence that he offered to fight with Amr. In Khyber, he led an attack but was repulsed by Marhab and he returned with the army blaming him of showing cowardice and he blamed the army. Umar was a clever man, he knew how to survive and he avoided all possible danger to his life. He was shrewd and politically astute. He secured the Khilafa for Abu Bakr and for himself and very cleverly passed it on to Usman. He ruled well and during his rule there were great conquests. However, the system of government he and Abu Bakr created in Saqifa lasted only 30 odd years when his protege Muawiya abolished Khilafat and introduced monarchy.

      • If you did read the whole article and still commented that Abubakr, Umar and Uthman fled from Uhud, Hunayn and Khayber, even though these misconceptions were refuted and destroyed in an academic manner, then this gives us an impression that you are a biased person who, doesn’t cares about facts but you are too obsessed with false & fabricated reports related to these events. As for not volunteering for a duel, then that doesn’t make anyone a coward neither, AbuBakr & Umar, Nor Salman al-Farsi, Miqdad, Abu Dhar, Bilal, etc. Moreover, the incident you are talking about has different versions, and unless the authenticity is not scrutinized one shouldn’t jump to conclusions. And if you think that it was the cleverness which sought Umar the seat of Caliphate, then a clever person would have taken the advantage of making his son as his successor, not Uthman. So please avoid insulting your intellect by making such foolish arguments.

      • So you admit that Abu Bakr, Umar and Usman never accepted single combat challenges. If they had then surely there would have been historic evidence. The absence of evidence means that they never ventured to indulge in an enterprise which could have been fatal. Of course accepting single combat challenges were not conducive to their welfare and hence they abstained. I am not surprised because in the instance of Amr Ibn Abduwad, he was considered to be equal to 1000 warriors. He was far above Abu Bakr, Umar and Usman’s league. Even the mighty Abu Dujana lost his courage and let the challenge pass. In a general melee, soldiers had the protection of other soldiers fighting in groups. In single combat, death stared in the eye and not many people had the courage to look into death’s eyes. Fighting Amr was certain death and non of the companions were foolish enough to walk into the jaws of certain death. However, Ali was all together different. Death did not frighten him, for he was the Lion of Allah. When Ali left the camp to face Amr, the Prophet declared that: Iman in its entirety was confronting Kufr in its entirety. Only Ali has the distinction to be called the essence of Iman.

        I wonder why you get so upset after all Ali is your 4th Rightly Guarded Khalifa. You should rejoice at his feats of courage. Abu Bakr, Umar and Usman may not have been cowards but their bravery was certainly suspect. Tell me where were these gentlemen when the Quraish boycotted Banu Hashim and the Prophet along with members of Banu Hashim was forced to spend three years in a ravine just protected by Banu Hashim lead by Abu Talib who you consider a non-Muslim.

      • You have missed a very crucial aspect of duels, duels during battles were a form of De-moraliser. The side whose fighter lost the duel would be demoralized, considering this fact in mind, a wise person wouldn’t be moved by emotions in battle ground, due to the risk of his death causing the whole army to be De-moralised. So as said earlier, not volunteering for the duel doesn’t mean lacking courage, or fear of death as you claim, not at all, it means that you don’t want to be the cause for demoralization of your army, especially in the situation when they were in a state of shock due to the betrayal of the Jews of Madinah. This is the same reason others too didn’t volunteer. And as the article points out bravery is not just being strong and skilled enough to kill the opponent, rather bravery “It is the stability of heart during trial” and examples of such instances for those people have mentioned in the article. As for the claim that they feared certain death, then the very presence in the battle field where the enemy is multiple times more in number would certainly cause such fear in a heart of a person, however the Sahaba who fought in Badr displayed their bravery by standing firm in it, refuting all sorts of criticisms from immature critics.

        Secondly, do keep in mind that, you are talking about people who were in their fiftees during battle of Trench. Not some young lads of twenties or thirtees. And the events of their bravery has very well been stated in the article.

        As for the Boycott of Bani hashim by Quraysh, I suggest you to read this article:
        http://mahajjah.com/accusation-of-abu-bakr-and-umar-not-being-present-during-the-boycott/

  2. Umar was an accomplished politician. His son Abdullah did not command the respect and standing which could have made him Caliph. Umar proposed Abu Bakr as Caliph in Saqifa and Usman seconded him. On his deathbed, Abu Bakr returned the favour by appointing Umar as his successor with Usman as the witness of the appointment. The committee which Umar formed on his deathbed to which was entrusted the task of selecting a caliph was weighed in favour of Usman because Abdr Rehman bin Auaf was related and close to Usman and he had the power to select. The fact is that Usman never got the time to sort out his successor. Had he not been murdered by a disgruntled mob, he would have passed the Khilafa to one of his own kinsmen.

    • As for Abu Bakr appointing Umar as the Caliph, then that occurred after Abu Bakr giving the choice to the people to elect a Caliph, when they failed to do so and asked him to do that, He appointed his successor. And this decision was backed by all the Sahaba.
      When Umar was appointed the Caliph ,
      فقام علي فقال لا نرضى إلا أن يكون عمر بن الخطاب
      Ali stood up and said : We will not agree upon anyone else in this matter except Umar.
      Musannif , Kitabul Fazail
      Asadul Ghaba, Vol. 4 ,p. 70
      Riyadh un nadhra, Vol. 2, p. 88
      Tarikh ul Khulufa, p. 61.

      As for the appointment of Uthman, then It seems you aren’t aware that it was the people who suggested Umar to appoint his son Abdullah as Caliph, and Umar didn’t reject this suggestion by what you think, He rejected this claim saying He didn’t want anyone else from his family to bear the burden of Caliphate. Infact, not just this , He didn’t include Sa’eed ibn Zayd ibn Nufayl in the candidates, even though he was one of the ten who had been granted paradise, just because he was from the tribe of Umar.

      As for the claim that, Abdur Rahman ibn Awf was related and close to Uthman, then Ibn Taymiyyah refuted that there was any close relationship by blood between `Uthman and `Abd al-Rahman radiya Llahu `anhuma. He said:
      `Abd al- Rahman was not a brother or cousin of `Uthman, and he was not from the same clan at all. Rather one was from Banu Zuhrah and the other was from Banu Umayyah, and Banu Zuhrah was closer to Banu Hashim than Banu Umayyah. Banu Zuhrah were maternal uncles of Rasul salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam, including `Abd al-Rahman ibn `Awf and Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas, of whom Rasul salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam said:
      هذَا خَالِيْ فَلْيُرِنِيْ امْرُؤٌ خَالَهُ
      This is my maternal uncle; who dares to compare his maternal uncle to mine?

      The Shi`ah based their reports of `Abd al-Rahman radiya Llahu `anhu favouring `Uthman radiya Llahu `anhu on the fact that they were related by marriage, but they forgot that the ties of blood are stronger than ties through marriage, and they also forgot the nature of the relationship between the believers in the first generation of Islam, and that it was based on neither ties of blood nor ties through marriage. The way in which `Abd al-Rahman radiya Llahu `anhu and `Uthman radiya Llahu `anhu were related through marriage was that `Abd al- Rahman was married to Umm Kulthum bint `Uqbah ibn Abi Mu`it, the sister of al-walid.

      Lastly, I would like to present a beautiful report showing how Umar favoured Ali during the process of appointment of his successor.
      Abdullah ibn ‘Abdu’r-Rahman ibn ‘Abdu’l-Qari reported that ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab and an Ansari man were sitting together when ‘Abdu’r-Rahman ibn ‘Abdu’l-Qari came and sat with them. ‘Umar said, “We do not want to stop our conversation.” ‘Abdu’r-Rahman said, “I will not sit with those people, Amir al-Mu’minin.” ‘Umar said, “Sit with so-and-so and so-and-so and do not stop our conversation. Then he asked the Ansari, “Who do you think should be the khalif after me?” The Ansari counted off some men among the Muhajirun, but did not mentioned ‘Ali. ‘Umar asked, “What do they have against Abu’l-Hasan (i.e. ‘Ali)? By Allah, if he were in charge of them, he would be the best suited to set them on the Path of the Truth.” [Bukhari’s, Al Adab al Mufrad]

  3. Ali was in his late fifties when he fought the Battles of Jamal, Siffin and Nehrwan. In these Battles he led from the front and showed the same valor and courage which he had displayed in the Battles during the Prophet’s time. Abu Bakr was in his fifties in the Battle of Badr but lacked courage. Umar was even younger. Your excuse of age therefore is invalid.

    • The point which you failed to understand till now is that, not volunteering for duel won’t make anyone a coward. The presence at the battle ground where the enemy is multiple times more, this itself is an act of bravery and courage. Case closed.

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