Hadeeth Al-Thaqalayn(Two weighty Things) — The correct understanding and a Spot-on perspective of Sunnis.


Hadeeth Al-Thaqalayn(Two weighty Things) — The correct understanding and a Spot-on perspective of Sunnis.

Bismillaahi Walĥamdulillaahi waŝŝalaatu wassalaamu ‘alaa rasoolillaahi

We have divided this article in following divisions:

I. Introduction

II. Meaning of Thaql and Thaqalayn

III. The correct Sunni explanation and interpretation of the AUTHENTIC versions of Hadeeth Thaqalayn.

IV. What is the reason for hadeeth Thaqalayn having different wordings/versions?

V. Why did some of the scholars authenticate weak versions of hadeeth Thaqalayn?

VI. Before the religion was perfected, what was the source holding which Muslims would never go astray?

VII. Weighty things are two – But only ONE of these is a source, holding which Muslims would not go astray.(i.e in Quran).

VIII. Religion being perfected before the mention of hadeeth Thaqalayn at Ghadeer is clear proof that, the purpose behind the mention of Ahlulbayt in Thaqalayn was not to seek their guidance but to take care of them.

IX. Understanding of Sahabi disapprove the view that the purpose behind mention of Ahlulbayt in Thaqalayn was to seek guidance.

X. Sahabi’s understanding of Hadeeth in comparision to the understanding of people who came after.

XI. Why did the mention of Ahlulbayt occur at Ghadeer, even though Quran was already declared as the source of guidance before the perfection of religion?

XII. Who are Ahlulbayt mentioned in hadeeth Thaqalayn?

XIII. Even the wives of Prophet(saw) are included in Ahlulbayt mentioned in Hadeeth Thaqalayn.

XIV. Hadeeth Kisa has no relation to Hadeeth Thaqalayn and it weakens the Shi’ee position.

XV. Who must be followed to attain salvation?

XVI. Quran and Sunnah of Prophet(saw) are the source adhering which Muslims would not go astray.

XVII. The Munkar(denounced) version of Hadeeth Thaqalayn – The wording of Khalifatayn.

 

I. Introduction.

Hadith-ul-Thaqalayn speaks of two heavy matters the Messenger of Allah(saws) left us, it speaks of two big responsibilities he asked us to carry, one of them much bigger and much more important than the other; the book of Allah most high- Quran-, which he(saws) often instructed his nation to hold on to it, as they will never go astray if they do. The second important responsibility is towards his Ahlul-Bayt, he reminded the Muslims of his family’s rights and entrusted them to his nation. However, a sect from the Muslims called the Shia claims that the Prophet (saws) told us at the event of Ghadeer, in his narration famously known as “Thaqalayn” that holding on to his household would save us from going astray, so is their understanding correct? Did the Prophet (saws) really say such a thing Or is it all a misunderstanding and misinterpretation of his words peace be upon him?.

Hadith al-Thaqalayn was said, in a certain context and this background is important to understand if we want to see what the Prophet(saw) meant. First off, the Hadith about following Quran and it being the only source holding which Muslims would never go astray was said by the Prophet(saws) in front of the larger gathering during his Farewell Sermon atop Mount Arafat, where the verse of perfection of religion was revealed. However, the Hadith al-Thaqalayn (i.e. Quran and Ahlel Bayt) was not said during the Farewell Sermon; instead, the Prophet(saws) said the Hadith al-Thaqalayn after some days, in front of the smaller gathering of people at a place called Ghadir Khumm, a half-way point to Medinah. It was directed only towards those living in Medinah, because the Prophet’s family lived in Medinah and therefore the task of taking care of them would fall upon their shoulders.

If Hadith al-Thaqalayn meant what the Shia imply, then surely the Prophet(saws) would have said it in front of all the Muslims during his Farewell Sermon. Instead, the Prophet(saws) only said this to those living in the same city as his family, again implying that what he meant was to take care of them.  Prophet’s words were not about deriving religion from the Ahlel Bayt but rather about behaving with them, taking care of them, giving their rights, and respecting them.

 

II. Meaning of Thaql and Thaqalayn

“Thaqal” means a weighty thing or heavy thing. this is the singular form and “al-Thaqalayn” is the Dual form. The word Thaqal in the language of the ancient Arabs is directed towards the matter which is an important and heavy burden or responsibility; this is its explanation from the reliable classical Arabic dictionaries “Lisan al-`Arab” and “Taj-ul-`Arous”:

لسان العرب [11 /85]
والثِّقْل الحِمْل الثَّقِيل والجمع أَثْقال مثل حِمْل وأَحمال وقوله تعالى وأَخرجت الأَرض أَثقالها أَثْقَالُها كنوزُها ومَوْتَاها

لسان العرب [1 /117]
( عبأ ) العِبْءُ بالكسرِ الحِمْل والثِّقْلُ من أَي شيءٍ كان والجمع الأَعْباء وهي الأَحْمال والأَثْقالُ وأُنشد لزهير
الحامِل العِبْء الثَّقِيل عن ال … جانِي بِغَيرِ يَدٍ ولا شُكْر

تاج العروس – الزبيدي – ج 7 – ص 589
وقال الجوهري : الوزير : الموازر ، كالأكيل المواكل ، لأنه يحمل عنه وزره ، أي ثقله . وقد استوزر فلان فهو يوازر الأمير ويتوزر له

In the Quran the message of Islam or the revelation was described as being a “Thaqal” or a heavy burden, we read: {Indeed, We will cast upon you a heavy word.} (Quran 73:5).

The scholars of interpretation or the Mufassireen said that it was described as heavy because the burden of delivering this message is heavy, to tell the people that the gods they were worshiping are false and there is one true God only, that is a heavy burden and a heavy responsibility.

Classical Shia scholar al-Tusi explains what the word Thaqal means in “Ikhtiyar Ma`rifat al-Rijal”:

اختيار معرفة الرجال – الشيخ الطوسي – ج 1 – شرح ص 411
قوله عليه السلام : فصيره في ثقل محمد صلواتك عليه ثقل الرجل – بالتحريك – حشمه أي قرابته وعياله ومن يغضب له ويذب عنه ، إذا أصابه أمر ونزلت به ملمة ، وثقل المسافر متاعه وأهل حزانته .

[The Thaqal of a man are his relatives and family, the ones who he gets angry for their sake and defends from harm, and the Thaqal of the traveler is his luggage ect…]

Shia scholar al-Sayyed Muhsin al-Ameen in his book “A`yan al-Shi`ah” stated:

أعيان الشيعة – السيد محسن الأمين – ج 1 – ص 602
فقال له الحسين ع كلم القوم فتقدم برير فقال يا قوم اتقوا الله فان ثقل محمد ص قد أصبح بين أظهركم هؤلاء ذريته وعترته وبناته وحرمه فهاتوا ما عندكم وما الذي تريدون ان تصنعوه بهم

[O people, fear Allah for the Thaqal of Muhammad have become your responsibility, they are his progeny and relatives and daughters and women…]

Therefore, at-Thaqal means a heavy thing or heavy responsibility or a heavy burden. Just like it is said in Sahih Muslim:
وَعَنْ اِبْنِ عَبَّاسٍ رَضِيَ اَللَّهُ عَنْهُمَا قَالَ: { بَعَثَنِي رَسُولُ اَللَّهِ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-فِي اَلثَّقَلِ, أَوْ قَالَ فِي اَلضَّعَفَةِ مِنْ جَمْعٍ بِلَيْلٍ .‏

Ibn ‘Abbas (RAA) narrated, ‘The Messenger of Allah(SAWS) sent me at night from al-Muzdalifah (to Mina) with the Thaqal or the weak members of his family (women and children).’ [Sahih Muslim #1293]

So here the Thaqal are the weak family members because they can’t defend themselves and as such are described as at-Thaqal ie a heavy responsibility for those who take care of them as they have to defend them in case of a surprise attack by the enemy.

 

III. The correct Sunni explanation and interpretation of the AUTHENTIC versions of Hadeeth Thaqalayn.

Before starting the explanation we would like to clarify to the readers that, there are several versions of hadeeth Thaqalayn, many of those are weak and unreliable expressions, having faulty text, which contradict the authentic expressions, however the Shi’ites, use those expressions from Sunni books which are weak versions in order to support their views and beliefs. In this section we will be explaining the expressions from AUTHENTIC version of Hadeeth Thaqalayn.

Expression #1A:

قام رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يخطبنا بماء يدعى خم بين مكة والمدينة ، فحمد الله وأثنى عليه ، ووعظ ، وذكر

[The messenger of Allah (saw) stood and addressed us in a pond called Khumm between Makkah and Madinah, He praised God and extolled Him and preached and reminded (us)]

This text defines the location of the event, it was in Ghadeer Khum, while resting around the pond on their way back from Hajj the Prophet (saws) stood in front of his companions and began his sermon.

Expression #1B:

قَدِمَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ، صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ، فَنَزَلَ بِوَادٍ بَيْنَ مَكَّةَ وَالْمَدِينَةِ فَخَطَبَنَا

[The messenger of Allah (saw) came down a valley between Makkah and Madinah, He (then) addressed us in a sermon]

The area between Makkah and Madinah is again Ghadeer Khum, this is where the narration of Thaqalayn took place, not in the farewell sermon(Khutba tul Wida), because the narrations related to the farewell sermon(Khutba tul Wida) are numerous and none of the authentic text of the farewell sermon contain any words regarding the household(Ahlulbayt).

This is what we find in the farewell Sermon(Khutba tul Wida) at `Arafat based on the authentic narrations of Jabir (ra) in Muslim and others:

وقد تركتُ فيكم ما لن تضلوا بعده إن اعتصمتُم به . كتابَ اللهِ . وأنتم تُسألون عني . فما أنتم قائلون ؟ قالوا : نشهد أنك قد بلغتَ وأدَّيتَ ونصحتَ

[I have left among you the Book of Allah, and if you hold fast to it, you would never go astray. And you would be asked about me (on the Day of Resurrection), (now tell me) what would you say? They (the audience) said: We will bear witness that you have conveyed (the message), discharged (the ministry of Prophethood) and given wise (sincere) counsel.(Sahih Muslim, Book 7, Hadith 2803)].

Notice that in the farewell Sermon, when the majority of Muslims were gathered, there is absolutely no mention of the household(Ahlulbayt), the only information we receive is that if the Muslims hold on to the Qur’an, they will never go astray. Therefore, ONLY Quran was referred a source holding which, Muslims would not go astray.

Expression #2:

أما بعد ، ألا أيها الناس ، إنما أنا بشر يوشك أن يأتيني رسول ربي فأجيبه ، وإني تارك فيكم الثقلين

[Lo, O people, I am only a human being and I am about to respond to the messenger of my Lord. I am leaving behind two heavy burdens (Thaqalayn) among you].

Thaqalayn is the dual form of Thaql. Thaql means “weight”, “burden”, and “heavy”. Obviously, Thaql has a general connotation of a weight which burdens and elicits responsibility.

Out of all the definitions of Thaql and its various forms and their various explications, “important” or “importance” is not one of them. “Importance” would be an inference at most, but definitely not a definition. Even if Thaql is to be understood as “important” it must be understood that it is an importance regarding its characteristic of eliciting responsibility, burden and cumber rather than being momentous and splendid. Obviously, Thaql and its various forms unanimously allude to burden, responsibility and cumber. It also refers to what is precious or valuable because taking care of such an item is surely cumbersome.

The word here is taraka (ترك) i.e leaving something behind. This doesn’t usually mean that you are leaving something behind in the sense of being replaced by it, rather leaving something behind that you will not care for or attend to it or leave it unchanged. As it is said in the Quranic verse for example:
قَالُوا يَا أَبَانَا إِنَّا ذَهَبْنَا نَسْتَبِقُ وَتَرَكْنَا يُوسُفَ عِندَ مَتَاعِنَا فَأَكَلَهُ الذِّئْبُ ۖ وَمَا أَنتَ بِمُؤْمِنٍ لَّنَا وَلَوْ كُنَّا صَادِقِينَ
They said, “O our father, indeed we went racing each other and left Joseph with our possessions, and a wolf ate him. But you would not believe us, even if we were truthful.”(Quran 12:17).

Here the brothers of Prophet Yusuf(as) left him unattended. Similarly, taraka as-salat means that someone neglects or abandons his prayer, for example:

النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَقُولُ ‏ “‏ إِنَّ بَيْنَ الرَّجُلِ وَبَيْنَ الشِّرْكِ وَالْكُفْرِ تَرْكَ الصَّلاَةِ

It is narrated on the authority of Jabir that he heard the Apostle (may peace and blessings be upon him) saying. Verily between man and between polytheism and unbelief is the negligence of prayer. [Sahih Muslim Book 1, Hadith 146]

Likewise, as per the Hadeeth Science, a narrator who is Matruk is someone who is abandoned.

This is the reason at the end of hadeeth it says: “so look at how you will deal with them after me”.

As for the “form” of the narration of al-Thaqalayn, then it is similar to other narrations such as this one from Sunan Abi Dawud #5156:

كَانَ آخِرُ كَلاَمِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ “‏ الصَّلاَةَ الصَّلاَةَ اتَّقُوا اللَّهَ فِيمَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَانُكُمْ

[Narrated Ali ibn AbuTalib: The last words which the Messenger of Allah (saw) spoke were: Prayer, prayer; fear Allah about those whom your right hands possess.]

This does not make the female servants equal in importance and value to the prescribed prayer, the Prophet (saw) wanted us to take care of both of these. However, each one is taken care of in a different way. The prayer is from the essentials of Islam and he who leaves it has technically left Islam, it cannot be compared to what the right hand possesses.

In Hadith al-Thaqalayn, we are also told that Prophet(saw) left two weighty things, the Qur’an and the household, but this in no way makes the household equal to the Qur’an as the Imami Shia scholars claim. Only a mind that is foreign to Islam, a mind that does not understand the book of Allah nor the teachings of his Prophet(saw), only such a confused mind would elevate the household(Ahlulbayt) to be on the same level as the holy words of God.

What is evident from the authentic texts is that holding on to the Qur’an means: Adhering to its rulings and following its orders and prohibitions, it is the true guidance. Whereas, holding on to the household(Ahlulbayt), means to protect them, and respect them, give their rights and to not mistreat them or rob them of their right.

In other words, guarding the Qur’an and following it and spreading its teachings is a heavy responsibility, also protecting the household and offering them their rights and fulfilling the duties towards them is a heavy responsibility as well.

Expression #3A:

أحدهما : كتاب الله ، فيه الهدى والنور ، فتمسكوا بكتاب الله وخذوا به – فرغب في كتاب الله وحث عليه ثم قال : « وأهل بيتي . أذكركم الله في أهل بيتي » ثلاث مرات

[One of them (is): The book of Allah, in it is guidance and light, so get hold of the Book of Allah and adhere to it. Then he urged and motivated (us) regarding the Book of Allah. Then he said: And my household, by Allah I remind you of my household (Three times).]

The Prophet(saws) defines these two heavy elements, the book of Allah contains the words of God, in it is the pure wisdom, the guidance of the soul and the light that extinguishes the darkness of ignorance. He(saws) informed them of the importance of the book and urged them to hold on to it and encouraged them to stick to its teachings.

The second element was his household, he reminded the Muslims of his household, just like any responsible man on his death-bed, he(saws) was worried about his family after his passing, so he reminded the Muslims of them, that they must honor them and love them and support them, he (saws) entrusted the nation with the fate of his family.

As for his household(Ahlulbayt), Prophet(saws) did not say: “They are infallible and their orders must be obeyed.” but he told them to fear God concerning them and to be aware of how they treat them after his death. This is the belief adopted by the majority of this blessed nation, that it is necessary for every single one of us to love the prophetic household as they have not only gathered faith but also added to it the closeness to the messenger of Allah (saws)

Expression #3B:

كتاب الله فيه الهدى والنور من استمسك به وأخذ به كان على الهدى ومن أخطأه ضل

[The book of Allah, in it is guidance and light, he who holds onto it and adheres to it will be upon guidance, and he who leaves it will be misguided (The rest is the same as the one mentioned previously)]

In this text it is clear that the protection from misguidance is tied to the Qur’an, following its teachings is guidance and success, and abandoning them is misguidance and failure. The Almighty says: { ذَٰلِكَ الْكِتَابُ لَا رَيْبَ فِيهِ هُدًى لِّلْمُتَّقِينَ /This is the Book about which there is no doubt, a guidance for those conscious of Allah} [Quran 2:2]

As for Ahlul-Bayt, loving them is a sign of belief per-consensus of the nation and its leaders. It was Abu Bakr al-Siddeeq(ra), the best man after the prophets (as) who said to the Muslims:

ارْقُبُوا مُحَمَّدًا صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فِي أَهْلِ بَيْتِهِ

[Look at Muhammad peace be upon him through his family] (Sahih Bukhari #3713)

Meaning, if you are not good to his family then you are not good to him.

Abu Bakr al-Siddeeq(ra) also said:

وَاللَّهِ لَقَرَابَةُ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَحَبُّ إِلَىَّ أَنْ أَصِلَ مِنْ قَرَابَتِي

[By Allah in Whose Hands is my life. I love to do good to the relatives of Allah’s Apostle rather than to my own relatives].(Sahih Bukhari, #4035, 4036)

Expression #3C:

أحدهما كتاب الله عز وجل هو حبل الله من اتبعه كان على الهدى ومن تركه كان على ضلالة

[One of them is the book of Allah the mighty and majestic, it is the rope of Allah, whoever follows it will be upon guidance, and whoever leaves it shall be on misguidance(The rest is the same as the one above it)]

In this text the Qur’an is described as “The rope of Allah”. It is as if Allah threw this rope so we can hold on to it saving us from sinking in the deep sea of darkness. A rope is like a link between the heavens and the earth, it is the connection between the slave and his Lord who wishes for his guidance.

Expression #4:

إني تارك فيكم الثقلين كتاب الله وعترتي أهل بيتي وإنهما لن يتفرقا حتى يردا علي الحوض

[I am leaving with you the two heavy burdens (Thaqalayn), the book of Allah and my household, and they will not separate until they reach me at the pond]

In this text we come across the expression “Kitab Allah wa `Itrati Ahlu-Bayti”, we know that Ahlul-Bayt refers to the household, let’s discover what the word `Itrah means in Arabic.

In the traditional Arabic dictionary Lisan al-`Arab by ibn Manzour 9/34 we read:
عترة الرجل أقرباؤه من ولد و غيره ،وقيل هم قومه ، أو عشيرته، ومن قال إن عترة النبي عليه الصلاة والسلام هم أولاد فاطمة فقط فهم العامة الذين انفردوا بهذا الرأي دون العرب ، فعترته قريش ، فعلى هذا حديث العترة المعروف يقصد بهم أصحابه الأدنون و أهله جميعا إلا في لفظ أهل بيتي فإنهم معروفون.

[The `Itrah of a man are his relatives from children and others, and it was said his folks, or his tribe, and those who said the `Itrah of the Prophet (saw) are only the children of Fatima, they are the general laypeople who exclusively adopt this opinion, NOT the Arabs. His `Itrah is Quraysh, and this is how the famous narration of `Itrah is understood, (meaning) his close companions and all of his family, except when it is followed by “My household” then they are known.]

The Imam al-Tawrbashti said in Al-Marqah 5/600:
عترة الرجل: أهل بيته ورهطه الأدنون، ولاستعمالهم “العترة” على أنحاء كثيرة بينها رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم بقوله: “أهل بيتي” ليعلم أنه أراد بذلك نسله وعصابته الأدنين وأزواجه

[The `Itrah of the man: It means the members of his household and his closest companions. Due to their usage of the word `Itrah with many meanings, the Messenger of Allah (saw) explained it here with his statement, “Ahli Bayti” (my family members or the members of my household), so that it may be known by this that he meant his progeny, and his closest relatives and his wives.

The second part is [“They will not separate until they reach me at the pond”]

It means, that the Prophet(saws) told his nation to take responsibility for two things, the Qur’an and the household, so if a slave held on to the Qur’an yet he wronged the household and oppressed them and harmed them, then he has not fulfilled the wish of the Prophet (saws) and he (saws) will not be pleased with him when he reaches him at the pond. On the other hand, if a slave was loyal to the household and loved them extremely, yet he abandoned the teachings of the Qur’an and deviated and innovated, the Prophet (saws) will not be pleased with him when he meets him at the pond because the responsibility of following the Qur’an and taking care of the household are linked. A true believer must always be responsible towards both.

Conclusion:

In Ghadeer, Prophet(saw) began by saying that his time has come near, then he says that he is leaving behind “Thaqalayn” and the Thaqal is the heavy matter and the burden of a man, this is why the family of a man are referred to as his Thaqal in Arabic, they are two heavy responsibilities for him and he is leaving them behind for us.

He(saw) reveals the first heavy matter and says “The book of Allah, a rope from the heavens to the earth.” The Qur’an was the most important responsibility in his life, Allah tasked him with preserving it, and He tasked him with reciting it and explaining it, and teaching it to the people while following its instructions to the letter. He describes it as “A rope from the heavens to the earth”, meaning that it’s the link which will be left behind after his passing, the matter that will link us with God after the revelation stops is his holy book. This also implies that it is guidance for us to reach the heavens, thus the usage of the word “rope”.

He(saw) then reveals the second heavy responsibility, he says “And my `Itrah my Ahlul-Bayt”, meaning that the second matter that was weighing on his shoulders was the responsibility of his family, to provide for them and care for them. Then after his death, this responsibility and heavy burden was placed on the shoulders of every believer, the duty of loving his family and protecting them and giving them their due rights. We give a simpler example, let’s say a friend of yours who was married and had a family and kids, this man suddenly discovers that he has a fatal disease (God Forbid), and he takes you to a room and tells you: “I feel I will not last long, and I’ll be leaving behind a heavy matter, my household.” Do you understand from this that you must obey them and follow their guidance? Or that he wishes for you to take care of them and treat them as your own?

Prophet(saw) informed the people that,“The merciful has informed me that they shall not separate until they reach me at the pond” Meaning that the responsibility of the Qur’an and the responsibility for his household shall both be tied together, and whoever reaches the Prophet (saw) and wishes to drink from the pond, if he were to be irresponsible towards one of the two during his life, then his fate shall hang in the balance. The example of this is that of the Khawarij/Nawasib, they perfected their Qur’anic recitation yet they killed `Ali and his children and hated them, or the Rafidah who claimed to love and support the Ahlul-Bayt yet neglected the Qur’an and even claimed its distortion and also abandoned a major portion of Ahlulbayt including wives of Prophet(saw). A true believer must always be responsible towards both, which is from the teachings of Ahl us-Sunnah wal Jama’ah.

The understanding of some scholars on Hadeeth Al-Thaqalayn.

(i). Shaikh Ali Muhammad as-Sallabi stated in his book:

What is proven in Saheeh Muslim is that the command was to adhere to the Book of Allah, and the instruction was to show respect and kindness to Ahl al-bayt, as we have seen in the hadith of Zayd ibn Arqam in Muslim. The Prophet(saw) enjoined adherence to the Book of Allah, then he said: “And the people of my household. I remind you of Allah with regard to the people of my household, I remind you of Allah with regard to the people of my household, I remind you of Allah with regard to the people of my household”. What he(saw) enjoined was adherence to the Quran. With regard to Ahl al-bayt, the Prophet(saw) enjoined taking care of them and giving them their rights, which had been granted to them by Allah(swt).(See: Haqbat min al-Tareekh, page 203). [Source: Ali ibn Abi Talib, Ali Muhammad as-sallabi, vol 2, page 413].

(ii). Dr. Muhammad Ali as-Saloos, who discussed the speech at Ghadeer and the advice to adhere to the Quran and Sunnah. He studied the reports about adhering to the Quran and Sunnah and the reports about adhering to the Quran and the family of the Prophet(saw) and examined them critically, then he said: “From the above, we can see that the hadith of the two weighty matters is one of the hadiths which are sound in both chain of narration and text. However, of the eight reports which enjoin adhering to the family of the Prophet(saw) alongside the noble Quran, not one of them is free of some weakness in the chain of narration.  (See: Ma’a Al-Shia al-Ithna Asharia, vol 1, page 136). [Source: Ali ibn Abi Talib, by Ali Muhammad as-sallabi, vol 2, page 411].

(iii). Al-Sindi said in the explanation of, ‘My Ahlulbayt:’ It was as if the Prophet (saw) made them equal in importance to his position. Just as in his (pbuh) life, it was him and the Qu’raan after his death. It was his family and the Qu’raan. But it means that we must abide by their love and position, not abiding to their orders and actions. (Source: Jamia Tirmidhi Sunan Al -Tirmidhi. Vol. 6, Pg. # 335).

(iv). Shaikh al-Islam Ahmed ibn Taymiyyah stated:

However, as for the term ‘al’Itrah’, we find in Saheeh of Muslim narrated Zayd ibn Arqam that he said; The Messenger of Allah spoke to us at a ghadeer Khum located between Mekka and al Medina and He said; “I am leaving among you the two weight things one of them is greater than the other, the Book of Allah (swt)” and incited us to adhere to it and He said; ”My progeny whom they are my Household, I remind you the pledge towards Allah by respecting my household,  I remind you the pledge towards Allah by respecting my household,  I remind you the pledge towards Allah by respecting my household” and in here lies the order to follow the Qur’aan and that He recommended the nation to take care of His Household and as for His saying; ”If you adhere to it than you would never astray after, the Book of Allah (swt) and my Itra (Family)”, it was narrated by al Tirmidhi and Ahmad ibn Hanbal said it is weak. (Source: Bayan Talbis al-Jahmiyyah. Vol. 8. Pg. # 230 – 231).

 

IV. What is the reason for hadeeth Thaqalayn having different wordings/versions?

It is known that all those different traditions are describing the same statement, and the occasion was one. The Prophet(saws) couldn’t have said all of those wordings because that would be useless.

The difference in the wording is due to reason that many people(sub-narrators) narrated it through meaning. So they narrated the summarized wording instead of exact wording. Prophet(saws) could have uttered only one of those different wordings. That is the reason there is not a hadith with this wording except there is also other version of same narration exist which aids the version of Sahih Muslim.

The exact wording has been narrated by Muslim in his Saheeh and Ahmad in his Musnad through Zaid bin Arqam, and this is the most authentic Isnad of Hadith Thaqalain. Similarly, the tradition of Atiyyah al-‘Awfi supports this, which was narrated by Fudhail, Atiyyah’s student.

Besides that, the version of Muslim is also explicit. It has been narrated in a way which makes us to believe that it has been narrated precisely.

This wording of Sahih Muslim is also supported by the narration of farewell ceremony related by Muslim and other through Ja’far as-Sadiq from al-Baqir from Jabir bin Abdullah(ra). If it was necessity for the Ummah to follow Ahlul Bayt then Prophet(saws) would have made this clear during his farewell speech at Makkah. But rather he commanded to stick with the Qur’an and later on at Khum he repeated the same thing except that he added the prescription for the Ummah to be careful with Ahlul Bayt.

Therefore, any version of Hadeeth Thaqalayn, which goes against the most strongest version of this hadeeth narrated by Zaid bin Arqam(ra), is to be considered as faulty.

 

V. Why did some of the scholars authenticate weak versions of hadeeth Thaqalayn?

Most of the scholars who were specialized in the field of hadeeth science, they weakened the chain of narrations of weak versions of Hadeeth Thaqalayn which had twisted wordings, since those chains apparently had serious flaws in them. Therefore, they did not authenticate the weak version of Hadeeth Thaqalayn on its own, but authenticated the tradition based on other authentic versions traditions of Hadeeth Thaqalayn, the ones which we already discussed, which mention about taking care and being responsible towards Ahlulbayt.

Scholars were well aware of the authentic versions of Hadeeth Thaqalayn, which is about the virtue of Ahlulbayt, therefore scholars had those versions of Thaqalayn in the back of their mind, using those as a supporting evidence scholars authenticated the weak versions of Hadeeth Thaqalayn. It is well known fact among the people of knowledge, that scholars of hadeeth, used to be lenient while grading the traditions which were regarding virtues(fadhail). For example we read:

Shaykh Tahir Aljazairi has recorded the comments of Imam Abu Shama Maqdisi from his book “AlBaes Ala Inkaar Al-Bida Wal Hawadis” in which with reference to a Majlis of Hafidh Ibn Asakar Dimashqi(rah) three Ahadeeth about Rajab are mentioned and then Imam Abu Shama Maqdisi says, “I wish Hafidh Ibn Asakar Dimashqi had not mentioned these Ahadeeth as it is tantamount to giving credence to Munkar(denounced) Ahadeeth but he has adopted the path of a group of Muhadetheen who are lenient when it comes to Ahadeeth pertaining to Fadhail(virtues). (Source: Tawjeeun-Nadhar)

Imam Abd al-Raḥmān ibn Mahdī said: If we narrated anything from the Prophet(saw), related to the lawful and unlawful as well as legal rulings, we would scrutinize the chains and evaluate the narrators.  However, if we narrated anything related to virtuous deeds, rewards, punishments, merely-permissible actions (mubāḥāt), and supplications, we would be lax with the chains of narration. [Al-Ḥākim, al-Mustadrak (1/490), al-Madkhal ilā Kitāb al-Iklīl (29), al-Bayhaqī, Dalā’il al-Nubuwwa (1/34), al-Khaṭīb, al-Jāmi‘ (#1267)].

Therefore, the scholars who authenticated the weak versions of Hadeeth Thaqalayn, did so because they considered the weak versions of Thaqalayn to be regarding virtue of Ahlulbayt, and since the authentic version of Thaqalyn, was already established; thus taking that as a supporting evidence they even authenticated the weak versions. However, the problem that occurred due to this leniency is that, the innovators started using these unreliable hadeeth not just in matters of virtues(fadhail) but they are using these reports to form belief. Therefore, it is necessary to expose the reality of these weak traditions by scrutinizing their chains and pointing out the major flaws in these traditions, which prove their weakness and the cause of rejection, since the Shia, have taken an undue advantage of the lenience of scholars towards traditions about virtues of Ahlulbayt, as they started using the weak versions of Thaqalayn in matters of belief. Even though the standard principle of forming the belief is that, the tradition which is weak and not authentic on its own, cannot be used in matters of belief. Infact, some scholars differed in regards to using ahad(single authentic) hadeeth to form belief, let alone using weak hadeeth.

The narrators who were were disparaged as weak, rejected and abandoned, were known for, twisting the texts of the traditions they were narrating, they used to twist the text of the hadeeth, therefore a tradition which was narrated in a twisted way, its message would appear different in comparison to the tradition narrated by trustworthy narrators. Same goes for the narrators who were innovators, they sometimes used to narrate the traditions based on their understanding, which supports their innovation, and not in the exact way it was narrated to them. This is the reason beliefs aren’t formed using the reports narrated by unreliable narrators or reports narrated by innovators which support their innovation.

Let us give an example, how the unreliable narrators twisted the text of hadeeth Thaqalayn, for the better understanding of readers:

Jabir ibn Abdullah said, “I saw the Prophet (saw) during his pilgrimage as was on his camel speaking, so I heard him say, “I left you that you must abide by that you will never go astray, the book of Allah (swt) and my Ahlulbayt (a.s).”

Footnote: Sahih li ghayri(authentic due to external evidence), the chain of this narration however is weak, because of Zayd Ibn Al-Hasan he is Qurashi and Al-Anmati.

[Source: Jamia Tirmidhi Sunan Al -Tirmidhi. Vol. 6, Pg. # 335].

Shaykh Shoaib Al-Arnaut declared the chain of this narration as weak, because of narrator Zayd Ibn Al-Hasan Al-Anmati. We find here that even though he weakened the chain of this report, yet he authenticated the tradition based on external evidence; those are authentic versions of hadeeth Thaqalayn, which are regarding the virtues of Ahlulbayt, that mention about taking care of Ahlulbayt and being responsible towards them.

However, the narration in question is weak on its own, the text of this report is faulty as it was twisted by the unreliable narrator, due to which it gives the message that, both Quran and Ahlulbayt should be adhered to be protected from going astray. Whereas the authentic version says that only Quran needs to be adhered to be protected from going astray. Hence such reports with faulty and twisted text by weak narrators are rejected and considered unreliable in terms of using them to form Islamic beliefs.

Shaikh Ali Muhammad as-Sallabi stated in his book:

Dr. Muhammad Ali as-Saloos, who discussed the speech at Ghadeer and the advice to adhere to the Quran and Sunnah. He studied the reports about adhering to the Quran and Sunnah and the reports about adhering to the Quran and the family of the Prophet(saw) and examined them critically, then he said: “From the above, we can see that the hadith of the two weighty matters is one of the hadiths which are sound in both chain of narration and text. However, of the eight reports which enjoin adhering to the family of the Prophet(saw) alongside the noble Quran, not one of them is free of some weakness in the chain of narration. (See: Ma’a Al-Shia al-Ithna Asharia, vol 1, page 136). [Source: Ali ibn Abi Talib, by Ali Muhammad as-sallabi, vol 2, page 411].

For the benefit of readers, here is analysis of different chains of Hadeeth Thaqalayn, so that when anyone presents you hadeeth Thaqalayn, its reliability can be verified from the following article: [List of Texts and Chains of Thaqalayn]

 

VI. Before the religion was perfected, what was the source holding which Muslims would never go astray?

Before the verse of perfection of religion was revealed by Allah(swt) on Arafah, Prophet(saw) mentioned only Quran as the source he left, holding which Muslims would never go astray.

أبشروا أبشروا ، أليس تشهدون أن لا إله إلا الله و أني رسول الله ؟ قالوا : نعم ، قال : فإن هذا القرآن سبب طرفه بيد الله ، و طرفه بأيديكم ، فتمسكوا به ، فإنكم لن تضلوا و لن تهلكوا بعده أبدا
abu Shurayh al-‘Adawi and Jubair bin Mut’am both narrated: The Prophet (SAWS) told his companions: “I give you glad tidings, I give you glad tidings! do you not bear witness that there is no God but Allah and that I am his Prophet?” We said: “Yes O Rassul-Allah”, He (SAWS) said: “This Quran is a means, a part of it is in the hand of Allah and the other part is in your hands, so hold on to it so that you will never go astray or perish afterwards.
[Source: Silsilah al-Sahiha #713 ; Grading: al-Albani said: “Sahih on the condition of Muslim.”]

Similarly we read in the Khutba tul wida(Farewell Sermon) of Prophet(saw) given on Arafah which was narrated by Imams from Ahlulbayt:

Ja’far bin Muhammad(Jafar as-Sadiq) reported on the authority of his father(Muhammad al Baqir) from Jabir bin Abdullah: The Messenger of Allah (saw), passed on till he came to ‘Arafah and he found that the tent had been pitched for him at Namira. There he(saw) got down till the sun had passed the meridian; he commanded that al-Qaswa should be brought and saddled for him. Then he came to the bottom of the valley, and addressed the people saying: Verily your blood, your property are as sacred and inviolable as the sacredness of this day of yours, in this month of yours, in this town of yours. Behold! Everything pertaining to the Days of Ignorance is under my feet completely abolished. Abolished are also the blood-revenges of the Days of Ignorance. The first claim of ours on blood-revenge which I abolish is that of the son of Rabi’a b. al-Harith, who was nursed among the tribe of Sa’d and killed by Hudhail. And the usury of she pre-Islamic period is abolished, and the first of our usury I abolish is that of ‘Abbas b. ‘Abd al-Muttalib, for it is all abolished. Fear Allah concerning women! Verily you have taken them on the security of Allah, and intercourse with them has been made lawful unto you by words of Allah. You too have right over them, and that they should not allow anyone to sit on your bed whom you do not like. But if they do that, you can chastise them but not severely. Their rights upon you are that you should provide them with food and clothing in a fitting manner. I have left among you the Book of Allah, and if you hold fast to it, you would never go astray. And you would be asked about me (on the Day of Resurrection), (now tell me) what would you say? They (the audience) said: We will bear witness that you have conveyed (the message), discharged (the ministry of Prophethood) and given wise (sincere) counsel. He (the narrator) said: He (the Holy Prophet) then raised his forefinger towards the sky and pointing it at the people (said):” O Allah, be witness. O Allah, be witness,” saying it thrice. [Sahih Muslim, Book 7, Hadith 2803].

Similar is reported from Abdullah ibn Umar(ra) in Musnad al-Bazzar:

حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ مَعْمَرٍ ، نا بُهْلُولٌ ، عَنْ مُوسَى بْنِ عُبَيْدَةَ ، حَدَّثَنِي صَدَقَةُ بْنُ يَسَارٍ ، وَعَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ دِينَارٍ ، عَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ . وَحَدَّثَنَا الْوَلِيدُ بْنُ عَمْرِو بْنِ سُكَيْنٍ ، نا أَبُو هَمَّامٍ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ الزِّبْرِقَانِ ، نا مُوسَى بْنُ عُبَيْدَةَ ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ دِينَارٍ ، وَصَدَقَةَ بْنِ يَسَارٍ ، عَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ قَالَ : نَزَلَتْ هَذِهِ السُّورَةُ عَلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ بِمِنًى وَهُوَ فِي أَوْسَطِ أَيَّامِ التَّشْرِيقِ فِي حَجَّةِ الْوَدَاعِ إِذَا جَاءَ نَصْرُ اللَّهِ وَالْفَتْحُ سورة النصر آية 1 فَعَرَفَ أَنَّهُ الْوَدَاعُ ، فَأَمَرَ بِرَاحِلَتِهِ الْقَصْوَاءِ فَرُحِّلَتْ لَهُ ، ثُمَّ رَكِبَ ، فَوَقَفَ لِلنَّاسِ بِالْعَقَبَةِ ، وَاجْتَمَعَ إِلَيْهِ مَا شَاءَ اللَّهُ مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ ، فَحَمِدَ اللَّهَ وَأَثْنَى عَلَيْهِ بِمَا هُوَ أَهْلُهُ ، ثُمَّ قَالَ : أَمَّا بَعْدُ : أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ فَإِنَّ كُلَّ دَمٍ كَانَ فِي الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ فَهُوَ هَدْرٌ ، وَإِنَّ أَوَّلَ دِمَائِكُمْ أُهْدِرَ دَمُ رَبِيعَةَ بْنِ الْحَارِثِ ، كَانَ مُسْتَرْضَعًا فِي بَنِي لَيْثٍ فَقَتَلَتْهُ هُذَيْلُ ، وَكُلُّ رِبًا كَانَ فِي الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ فَهُوَ مَوْضُوعٌ ، وَإِنَّ أَوَّلَ رِبَاكُمْ أَضَعُ رِبَا الْعَبَّاسِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الْمُطَّلِبِ . أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنَّ الزَّمَانَ قَدِ اسْتَدَارَ كَهَيْئَتِهِ يَوْمَ خَلَقَ اللَّهُ السَّمَوَاتِ وَالأَرْضَ ، وَإِنَّ عِدَّةَ الشُّهُورِ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ اثْنَا عَشَرَ شَهْرًا ، مِنْهَا أَرْبَعَةٌ حُرُمٌ : رَجَبٌ ، مُضَرُ الَّذِي بَيْنَ جُمَادَى وَشَعْبَانَ ، وَذُو الْقَعْدَةِ ، وَذُو الْحَجَّةِ ، وَالْمُحَرَّمُ ، ذَلِكَ الدِّينُ الْقَيِّمُ فَلا تَظْلِمُوا فِيهِنَّ أَنْفُسَكُمْ سورة التوبة آية 36 ، إِنَّمَا النَّسِيءُ زِيَادَةٌ فِي الْكُفْرِ يُضَلُّ بِهِ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا يُحِلُّونَهُ عَامًا وَيُحَرِّمُونَهُ عَامًا لِيُوَاطِئُوا عِدَّةَ مَا حَرَّمَ اللَّهُ سورة التوبة آية 37 كَانُوا يُحِلُّونَ صَفَرَ عَامًا ، وَيُحَرِّمُونَ الْمُحَرَّمَ عَامًا ، وَيُحَرِّمُونَ صَفَرَ عَامًا ، وَيُحِلُّونَ الْمُحَرَّمَ عَامًا ، فَذَلِكَ النَّسِيءُ ، يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ مَنْ كَانَتْ عِنْدَهُ وَدِيعَةٌ فَلْيُؤَدِّهَا إِلَى مَنِ ائْتَمَنَهُ عَلَيْهَا ، أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنَّ الشَّيْطَانَ قَدْ يَئِسَ أَنْ يُعْبَدَ بِبِلادِكُمْ آخِرِ الزَّمَانِ ، وَقَدْ يَرْضَى مِنْكُمْ بِمُحَقَّرَاتِ الأَعْمَالِ فَاحْذَرُوا عَلَى دِينِكُمْ بِمُحَقَّرَاتِ الأَعْمَالِ . يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنَّ النِّسَاءَ عِنْدَكُمْ عَوَانٌ أَخَذْتُمُوهُنَّ بِأَمَانَةِ اللَّهِ ، وَاسْتَحْلَلْتُمْ فُرُوجَهُنَّ بِكَلِمَةِ اللَّهِ ، لَكُمْ عَلَيْهِنَّ ، وَلَهُنَّ عَلَيْكُمْ حَقٌّ ، وَمِنْ حَقِّكُمْ عَلَيْهِنَّ أَلا يُوطِئْنَ فُرُشَكُمْ غَيْرَكُمْ ، وَلا يَعْصِينَكُمْ فِي مَعْرُوفٍ ، فَإِنْ فَعَلْنَ ذَلِكَ فَلَيْسَ لَكُمْ عَلَيْهِنَّ سَبِيلا ، وَلَهُنَّ رِزْقُهُنَّ وَكِسْوَتُهُنَّ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ ، فَإِنْ ضَرَبْتُمْ فَاضْرِبُوا ضَرْبًا غَيْرَ مُبَرِّحٍ ، لا يَحِلُّ لامْرِئٍ مِنْ مَالِ أَخِيهِ إِلا مَا طَابَتْ بِهِ نَفْسُهُ ، أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنِّي قَدْ تَرَكْتُ فِيكُمْ مَا إِنْ أَخَذْتُمْ بِهِ لَمْ تَضِلُّوا ، كِتَابَ اللَّهِ فَاعْمَلُوا بِهِ ، أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ أَيُّ يَوْمٍ هَذَا ؟ ، قَالُوا : يَوْمٌ حَرَامٌ ، قَالَ : فَأَيُّ بَلَدٍ هَذَا ؟ ، قَالُوا : بَلَدٌ حَرَامٌ ، قَالَ : فَأَيُّ شَهْرٍ هَذَا ؟ ، قَالُوا : شَهْرٌ حَرَامٌ ، قَالَ : فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى حَرَّمَ دِمَاءَكُمْ وَأَمْوَالَكُمْ وَأَعْرَاضَكُمْ كَحُرْمَةِ هَذَا الْيَوْمِ وَهَذَا الشَّهْرِ وَهَذَا الْبَلَدِ ، أَلا لَيُبَلُّغْ شَاهِدُكُمْ غَائِبَكُمْ ؛ لا نَبِيَّ بَعْدِي ، وَلا أُمَّةَ بَعْدَكُمْ ، ثُمَّ رَفَعَ يَدَيْهِ ، فَقَالَ : اللَّهُمَّ اشْهَدْ

Therefore, we read in these authentic traditions that, Prophet(saw) mentioned only Quran as the source holding which Muslims would never go astray after him. There is no mention of his household(Ahlulbayt) at all, during the mass gathering of people at the important farewell sermon of Prophet(saw). We notice, that Prophet(saw) even asked people that has he(saws) conveyed the message? And the Muslims bore witness that the Message was conveyed by him. Then Prophet(saw) made Allah(swt) as a witness for this important sermon. However, in this authentic sermon of Prophet(saws) on the day of Arafah there is no mention of Ahlulbayt, and the only mention was of Quran, holding which Muslims would never go astray after him.

As per authentic traditions present in Sunni Books, the verse of perfection of religion was revealed on the day of Arafah.

Narrated Tariq bin Shihab: A Jew said to `Umar, “O Chief of the Believers, if this verse: ‘This day I have perfected your religion for you, completed My favors upon you, and have chosen for you, Islam as your religion.’ (5.3) had been revealed upon us, we would have taken that day as an `Id (festival) day.” `Umar said, “I know definitely on what day this Verse was revealed; it was revealed on the day of `Arafat, on a Friday.”( Sahih al-Bukhari #7268).

Ibn Abbas recited: This day, I have perfected your religion for you, completed My favor upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion (5:3). And a Jew was with him who said: ‘If this Ayah was revealed to us then we would have taken that day as a day of celebration.’ So Ibn ‘Abbas said: ‘Indeed it was revealed on two ‘Eids: On Friday, and on the Day of ‘Arafah.'” (Sunan Tirmidi, Book 47, Hadith 3318 ; Sahih).

We read in Tafseer ibn Katheer:

Ibn Jarir recorded that Harun bin `Antarah said that his father said, “When the Ayah, (This day, I have perfected your religion for you…) was revealed, during the great day of Hajj(the Day of `Arafah, the ninth day of Dhul-Hijjah) ` Umar cried. The Prophet said, `What makes you cry’ He said, `What made me cry is that our religion is being perfected for us. Now it is perfect, nothing is perfect , but it is bound to deteriorate. ‘The Prophet said, You have said the truth.”. [Tafseer Ibn Katheer].

Important Points:

  1. Prophet(saw) on his important farewell sermon, did not mention about his household(Ahlulbayt), but rather he stated only about Quran being source he left holding which Muslims won’t go astray, this is reported by two companions of Prophet(saw), Jabir bin Abdullah(ra) and Abdullah ibn Umar(ra).
  2. It was such an important message to Muslims, that people bore witness that it was conveyed. And then Allah(swt) was made a witness for that, If it was mandatory for the Ummah to follow Ahlul Bayt then Prophet(saws) would have made this clear during his farewell speech at Makkah, but there was no mention of Ahlulbayt, as per any authentic tradition. Rather he commanded to stick with the Qur’an and later on at Khumm he repeated the same thing except that he added the prescription for the Ummah to be careful with Ahlul Bayt.
  3. On that same day, the verse of perfection of religion(Ikmal al-deen)(5:3) was revealed, and the religion was perfected, even though Ahlulbayt were not mentioned.
  4. If following Ahlulbayt in specific was a fundamental commandment, then this would have been covered on the farewell sermon, and before the religion being perfected, but this did not happen and no authentic traditions mentions this, and those reports which mention it are very weak and rejected, since they were reported from very weak/unreliable narrators and they contradict the authentic version of farewell sermon, which was reported by Imams from Ahlulbayt. As well as they contradict the authentic version of hadeeth Thaqalayn since it mentions that it was said on Ghadeer Khum.

 

VII. Weighty things are two – But only ONE of these is a source, holding which Muslims would not go astray.(i.e in Quran).

From the analysis of authentic reports in the above sections, we found that, although the weighty things are two, however only one of the weighty things is a source, holding which Muslims will remain on guidance and won’t go astray, that is the book of Allah(Quran). The holy Quran is the only thing mentioned as source of guidance, before religion was perfected.

Let us quote those reports again for the benefit of readers:

Narrated Jabir bin Abdullah(ra) that: Prophet(saw) said: I have left among you the Book of Allah, and if you hold fast to it, you would never go astray. And you would be asked about me (on the Day of Resurrection), (now tell me) what would you say? They (the audience) said: We will bear witness that you have conveyed (the message), discharged (the ministry of Prophethood) and given wise (sincere) counsel. He (the narrator) said: He (the Holy Prophet) then raised his forefinger towards the sky and pointing it at the people (said): “O Allah, be witness. 0 Allah, be witness,” saying it thrice […]. (Sahih Muslim Book 7 ,Number 2803, Chapter: Farewell Pilgrimage of the Apostle of Allah (May peace be upon him).

Similar report is found from Abdullah ibn Umar(ra), which we quoted in the previous section.

Even before the last pilgrimage, The Prophet (saw) always reminded his companions, of the importance of Allah’s book, and that it saves from misguidance, we read in the Sahih Hadith:

أبشروا أبشروا ، أليس تشهدون أن لا إله إلا الله و أني رسول الله ؟ قالوا : نعم ، قال : فإن هذا القرآن سبب طرفه بيد الله ، و طرفه بأيديكم ، فتمسكوا به ، فإنكم لن تضلوا و لن تهلكوا بعده أبدا
abu Shurayh al-‘Adawi and Jubair bin Mut’am both narrated: The Prophet (SAWS) told his companions: “I give you glad tidings, I give you glad tidings! do you not bear witness that there is no God but Allah and that I am his Prophet?” We said: “Yes O Rassul-Allah”, He (SAWS) said: “This Quran is a means, a part of it is in the hand of Allah and the other part is in your hands, so hold on to it so that you will never go astray or perish afterwards.
[Source: Silsilah al-Sahiha #713 ; Grading: al-Albani said: “Sahih on the condition of Muslim.”]

In the light of these authentic traditions, let us understand the authentic tradition of Thaqalayn.

Narrated Zaid bin Arqam: One day Allah’s Messenger (saw) stood up to deliver sermon at a watering place known as Khumm situated between Mecca and Medina. He praised Allah, extolled Him and delivered the sermon and. exhorted (us) and said: […]I am leaving among you two weighty things: the one being the Book of Allah in which there is right guidance and light, so hold fast to the Book of Allah and adhere to it. He exhorted (us) (to hold fast) to the Book of Allah and then said: The second are the members of my household I remind you (of your duties) to the members of my family.(Sahih Muslim, Book 31, Hadith 5920).

In this most authentic narration of hadeeth Thaqalayn, we find from the words of Prophet(saw) that, the source of guidance, which needs to be adhered is the Book of Allah(swt) ONLY. And then Prophet(saw) reminded people about his Household(Ahlulbayt), regarding the duties or responsibilities of people towards them. Notice that when he mentioned Ahlulbayt, he didn’t state anything regarding guidance, had it been that even Ahlulbayt were to be adhered to seek guidance, then this would have been mentioned for them too, but it didn’t happen.

In the most authentic version of Hadeeth Thaqalayn, Quran was singled out as the source of guidance which was to be adhered. What further strengthens our explanation is that; just like Prophet(saw) said on Arafah only about the Quran being the source of guidance holding which one who not go astray, similarly even when Hadeeth Thaqalayn was spoken, only Quran was mentioned as the source of guidance which needed to be adhered.

Even`Ali(RA) agrees with Sunni understanding of Hadith al-Thaqalayn, that the only means of guidance left behind by the Prophet(SAWS) is Allah’s book(Quran) :

ثُمَّ اخْتَارَ سُبْحَانَهُ لِمحَمَّد صلى الله عليه لِقَاءَهُ، وَرَضِيَ لَهُ مَا عِنْدَهُ، فَأَكْرَمَهُ عَنْ دَارِالدُّنْيَا، وَرَغِبَ بِهَ عَنْ مُقَارَنَةِ البَلْوَى، فَقَبَضَهُ إِلَيْهِ كَرِيماً صَلَّى اللهُ علَيهِ و آلِهوَخَلَّفَ فِيكُمْ مَا خَلَّفَتِ الاْنْبيَاءُ في أُمَمِها، إذْ لَم يَتْرُكُوهُمْ هَمَلاً، بِغَيْر طَريق واضِح، ولاَعَلَمٍ قَائِم. كِتَابَ رَبِّكُمْ [فِيكُمْ:] مُبَيِّناً حَلاَلَهُ وَحَرامَهُ، وَفَرَائِضَهُ وَفَضَائِلَهُ، وَنَاسِخَهُ وَمَنْسُوخَهُ، وَرُخَصَهُ وَعَزَائِمَهُ، وَخَاصَّهُ وَعَامَّهُ، وَعِبَرَهُ وَأَمْثَالَهُ، وَمُرْسَلَهُ وَمَحْدُودَهُ، وَمُحْكَمَهُ وَمُتَشَابِهَهُ، مُفَسِّراً جُمَلَهُ، وَمُبَيِّناً غَوَامِضَهُ.
[…Then Allah chose for Muhammad (saw) to meet Him, selected him for His own nearness, regarded him too dignified to remain in this world and decided to remove him from this place of trial. So He drew him towards Himself with honor. He (saw) left among you the same thing other Prophets left among their peoples, because Prophets do not leave them untended without a clear path and a standing ensign, namely the Book of your Creator clarifying its permission and prohibitions, its obligations and discretion…](Nahjul Balagha, Sermon 1).

Ali(RA) doesn’t mention that the Prophet(saw) left behind the Qur’an and Ahlul-Bayt as guidance, only the Qur’an and this was the way of previous prophets.

 

VIII. Religion being perfected before the mention of hadeeth Thaqalayn at Ghadeer is clear proof that, the purpose behind the mention of Ahlulbayt in Thaqalayn was not to seek their guidance but to take care of them.

As per authentic traditions present in Sunni Books, the verse of perfection of religion was revealed on the day of Arafah, before the event of Ghadeer and the mentioning of hadeeth Thaqalayn.

Following are the authentic tradition which proves the fact that verse of perfection of religion(Ikmal al-Deen) was revealed at Arafah:

Narrated Tariq bin Shihab: A Jew said to `Umar, “O Chief of the Believers, if this verse: ‘This day I have perfected your religion for you, completed My favors upon you, and have chosen for you, Islam as your religion.’ (5.3) had been revealed upon us, we would have taken that day as an `Id (festival) day.” `Umar said, “I know definitely on what day this Verse was revealed; it was revealed on the day of `Arafat, on a Friday.”(Sahih al-Bukhari #7268).

“Ibn Abbas recited: This day, I have perfected your religion for you, completed My favor upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion (5:3). And a Jew was with him who said: ‘If this Ayah was revealed to us then we would have taken that day as a day of celebration.’ So Ibn ‘Abbas said: ‘Indeed it was revealed on two ‘Eids: On Friday, and on the Day of ‘Arafah.'” (Sunan Tirmidi, Book 47, Hadith 3318 ; Sahih).

We read in Tafseer ibn Katheer:

Ibn Jarir recorded that Harun bin `Antarah said that his father said, “When the Ayah, (This day, I have perfected your religion for you…) was revealed, during the great day of Hajj(the Day of `Arafah, the ninth day of Dhul-Hijjah) ` Umar cried. The Prophet said, `What makes you cry’ He said, `What made me cry is that our religion is being perfected for us. Now it is perfect, nothing is perfect , but it is bound to deteriorate. ‘The Prophet said, You have said the truth.”. [Tafseer Ibn Katheer].

Similarly we even read in Shia hadeeth that the verse of perfection of religion was revealed on Arafah. We read in Shia book Al Kafi:

يوم الجمعة بعرفة ، أنزل الله عز وجل ” اليوم أكملت لكم دينكم وأتممت عليكم نعمتي

Narrated Abu Jafar(as): Friday on Arafah, Allah had revealed: “Today I have completed your religion for you”( al-Kafi, vol 1, page 290).

[Note: Even though we believe that the Shia reports are manipulated and corrupted due to which they aren’t a binding proof upon Sunnis, however we are using a portion of Shia report, in order to refute those Shias who believe that the verse of perfection of religion was not revealed on Arafah but was revealed on Ghadeer.]

If following Ahlulbayt in specific was a fundamental commandment, then this would have been covered on the farewell sermon and before the religion was perfected, but this did not happen and none of authentic traditions mention this, as for the authentic traditions then they state that hadeeth Thaqalayn was stated on Ghadeer NOT in Arafah. This being mentioned after religion was perfected, is a clear evidence that seeking guidance from Ahlulbayt was not the real message of hadeeth Thaqalayn, but rather the message was to take care of Ahlulbayt.

We are aware that, there are few very weak and unreliable reports having FAULTY text which state that, hadeeth Thaqalayn was even said on Arafah, however those reports which mention it are Munkar(denounced) due to being reported by very weak and unreliable narrators and they contradict the authentic version of farewell sermon, which was reported by Imams from Ahlulbayt. They even contradict the authentic version of hadeeth Thaqalayn which mentions that it was spoken at Ghadeer Khum.

Infact, it was the mischief of those very weak and unreliable narrators who reported the Munkar(denounced) version twisting the texts and stating that Thaqalayn was mentioned on Arafah, which contradicts other authentic reports.

For the benefit of readers, let us verify the reliability of those weak reports with FAULTY text, which Shias quote claiming that hadeeth Thaqalayn was even spoken at Arafah.

First unreliable tradition:

Jabir ibn Abdullah said, “I saw the Prophet (saw) during his pilgrimage as was on his camel speaking, so I heard him say, “I left you that you must abide by that you will never go astray, the book of Allah (swt) and my Ahlulbayt (a.s).”

Footnote: Sahih li ghayri(authentic due to external evidence), the chain of this narration however is weak, because of Zayd Ibn Al-Hasan he is Qurashi and Al-Anmati.

[Source: Jamia Tirmidhi Sunan Al -Tirmidhi. Vol. 6, Pg. # 335].

Response:

Here is the Chain for this tradition:

حَدَّثَنَا نَصْرُ بْنُ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ الْكُوفِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا زَيْدُ بْنُ الْحَسَنِ، هُوَ الأَنْمَاطِيُّ عَنْ جَعْفَرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ جَابِرِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ

It was reported through the way of Zaid bin Al-Hasan Al-Anmati from Ja’far bin Muhammad from his father (Al-Baqir) from Jabir bin Abdullah.

Narrator Zaid bin al-Hasan al-Anmaati was weak as stated by Hafiz Ibn Hajar in Taqreeb (1/337). Abu Hatim said that he was Munkar al-Hadeeth(denounced).

The hadeeth of Thaqalain was said by the Prophet (saw) at the place of Khumm. However, according to this tradition the Prophet said it during his pilgrimage, at ‘Arafah.

Narrator Zaid al-Anmaati who was called Munkar al-hadeeth by Abu Hatim, relates it from Ja’far as-Sadiq, while the other trustworthy narrators related it through same Ja’far as-Sadiq and they did not mentioned Ahlul Bayt. Rather,during the farewell pilgrimage the Prophet (saw) only urged people to stick with Qur’an. This tradition could be read in Sahih Muslim and other books.

Shaykh Shoaib Al-Arnaut declared the chain of this narration as weak, because of Zayd Ibn Al-Hasan Al-Anmati.

If it is said that Shaykh al-Albani authenticated this, then answer would be: No, Shaykh al-Albani did not authenticate this particular incident; rather he specifically authenticated the wording which was common in both this narration and other narrations. He notified the weakness in Zaid al-Anmaati there. See, As-Saheehah (1761).

 

Second unreliable tradition:

Al-Rafi’i Al-Qazweeni: narrated his grandson Abul Hussain Ahmad ibn Muhammad Ahmad ibn Maymoon from him (i.e. Ahmad Muhammad iMaymoon) and from Muhammad ibn Al-Hajjaj both of them said: narrated Muhammad ibn Mihran from Hatam ibn Ismaeel from Ja’far ibn Muhammad from his father from Jabir that the Allah’s Messenger when performing the hajj seated on his she camel Al-Qaswa on the day of Arafah, saying, “O people, I have left among you something of such a nature that if you adhere to it you will not go astray: Allah’s Book and my close relatives, my Ahlulbayt (a.s).”

[Source: Al-Tadween Fi Akhbar Al-Qazween. Vol.2, Pg. # 266].

Response:

Here is the chain for this report:

Muhammad bin Mehran -> Hatim bin Isma`eel -> Ja`far bin Muhammad -> his father -> Jabir.

This report is also weak since it has ilal(hidden defect) in it. The lateness of this source casts great doubts on its authenticity; it also contradicts the most authentic of narrations which state that al-Thaqalayn happened in Ghadeer Khum, not in the last Hijjah or the farewell sermon at `Arafah. It also contradicts the earliest and most authentic reports from Ja`far, from his father, from Jabir (ra) in which he narrates the Hadith of Hajj in full detail without any mention of Thaqalayn.

Al-Imam al-Tabarani who has researched this narration said in his Mu`jam that: “No one narrated this Hadith from Ja`far bin Muhammad except for Zayd bin al-Hasan al-Anmati.” And this is true if one were to revise all the narrations above, we find al-Anmati narrating it and not Hatim bin Isma`eel, meaning that there is an error in this chain, which is expected from late sources.

The mistake is that Hatim bin Isma`eel narrated a similar narration, from Ja`far, from his father, from Jabir (ra), and it is authentic in al-Tahawi’s book, and it mentions that the Prophet (saw) rode his favorite camel (al-Qaswa’), and when it climbed on top of a small mountain called al-Bayda’, he started making Ihlal (Loud calling of Talbiyah). Apparently al-Rafi`ee or one of the narrators made the mistake since both narrations are similar and he switched the chain of one Hadith for the text of the other Hadith.

So what is correct is that, it was narrated by narrator Zayd bin al-Hasan al-Anmati, and his status has been discussed in the previous response, he was weak and was called Munkar al-hadeeth.

 

IX. Understanding of Sahabi disapprove the view that the purpose behind mention of Ahlulbayt in Thaqalayn was to seek guidance.

Narrated Zaid b. Arqam: Prophet(saw) said: I am leaving among you two weighty things: the one being the Book of Allah in which there is right guidance and light, so hold fast to the Book of Allah and adhere to it. He exhorted (us) (to hold fast) to the Book of Allah and then said: The second are the members of my household I remind you (of your duties) to the members of my family. He (Husain) said to Zaid: Who are the members of his household? Aren’t his wives the members of his family? Thereupon he said: His wives are the members of his family (but here) the members of his family are those for whom acceptance of Zakat is forbidden. And he said: Who are they? Thereupon he said: ‘Ali and the offspring of ‘Ali, ‘Aqil and the offspring of ‘Aqil and the offspring of Ja’far and the offspring of ‘Abbas. Husain said: These are those for whom the acceptance of charity(sadaqa) is forbidden. Zaid said: Yes. (Sahih Muslim, Book 31, Hadith 5920).

Notice, that when the noble Sahabi(companion) of Prophet(saw) was asked about who Ahlulbayt are, he replied that members of household(Ahlulbayt) in regards to Hadeeth Thaqalayn are those relatives of Prophet(saw) on whom the acceptance of charity(sadaqa) is forbidden. They are Ali and the offspring of ‘Ali, ‘Aqil and the offspring of ‘Aqil and the offspring of Ja’far and the offspring of ‘Abbas.

Zaid bin Arqam(ra) did not say, Ahlulbayt are those who are chosen by Allah or those who were purified or those who were infallible. Rather Zaid(ra) GENERALIZED that Ahlulbayt in regards to Hadeeth Thaqalayn are those relatives of Prophet(saw) on whom acceptance of charity(sadaqa) is forbidden. The question which the readers should ponder over is that; Were all the members on whom acceptance of Sadaqa was made forbidden eligible to be adhered to save ourselves from going astray? Undoubtedly, No! People of knowledge know that not all the relatives of Prophet(saw) on whom acceptance of Sadaqa was made forbidden, were righteous, there were people among them who were unrighteous too and they were fallibles prone to commit sin and mistakes, to say the least. And even Zaid bin Arqam(ra) knew this fact very well, but still he defined Ahlulbayt mentioned in hadeeth Thaqalayn in a generalized manner, that those are the relatives of Prophet(saw) on whom acceptance of Saqada is forbidden( i.e ‘Ali and the offspring of ‘Ali, ‘Aqil and the offspring of ‘Aqil and the offspring of Ja’far and the offspring of ‘Abbas). Which implies that he didn’t understand that Ahlulbayt mentioned in Thaqalayn were those who must be adhered and from whom guidance must be sought.

The reason we are saying this is because of the generalized definition given by Zaid(ra). He described Ahlulbayt, as those relatives of Prophet(saw) on whom acceptance of Sadaqa was forbidden, this was the only condition he mentioned to define Ahlulbayt in regards to hadeeth Thaqalayn. This is the reason, even though Zaid(ra) accepted wives of Prophet(saw) were Ahlulbayt, yet he said that in regards to hadeeth Thaqalayn, Ahlulbayt were those relatives of Prophet(saw) on whom acceptance of Sadaqa was forbidden.

If Zaid bin Arqam(ra) believed that righteousness or purification, was a criteria to know Ahlulbayt in hadeeeth Thaqalayn, then he would have even included wives of Prophet(saw) in it, since all the wives of Prophet(saw) were righteous[If The Rafidah disagree then we give them the example of Umm Salama and Zaynab bint Jahash, atleast they must have been included], but Zaid(ra) didn’t include them and made a generalized definition that, it is those relatives of Prophet(saw) on whom Sadaqa is forbidden, even though it included some members who were unrighteous or members who were fallible and prone to sins and mistakes. Therefore, Zaid bin Arqam(ra) making a generalized definition which even included unrighteous members, is an apparent proof that, he didn’t believe that in regards to hadeeth Thaqalayn, the purpose behind the mention of Ahlulbayt was to adhere them, to be saved from going astray, or to seek guidance from them. He didn’t believe that the purpose behind the mention of Ahlulbayt in hadeeth Thaqalayn, was to adhere them for guidance.

Rather, the generalized definition made by Zaid bin Arqam(ra) and stating the only condition for it as, “Sadaqa being forbidden”, is a clear proof that, Zaid(ra) understood the purpose behind the mention of Ahlulbayt in hadeeth Thaqalayn was to take care of them and to be responsible towards them, not to adhere them or to seek their guidance, and this is the actual and correct understanding of hadeeth Thaqalayn.

Readers, might question that, how does the generalized definition of Ahlulbayt made by noble companion Zaid(ra) in regards to hadeeth Thaqalayn, prove that the purpose behind the mention of Ahlulbayt in hadeeth Thaqalayn was to take care of them and be responsible towards them?.

The answer is that, hadeeth Thaqalayn was mentioned on the location of Ghadeer Khum, this was in relation to what occurred during Hajj when, the Muslim army from Yemen returned to Makkah, they made multiple complains against their commander -Ali(ra) – who was a member of Ahlulbayt, and one of the complaint was that Ali(ra) had taken a slave girl from Khums, therefore Prophet(saws) rebuked those who complained against Ali(ra) and said that Ali(ra) even deserved more than that from Khums. Therefore, on the way back to Madina after Hajj, and after religion was perfected and after Farewell Sermon was given at Makkah; Prophet(saws) stopped at a resting place called Ghadeer Khum, and there he addressed people for befriending and loving Ali(ra) who was a member of Ahlulbayt, and He(saw) even mentioned hadeeth Thaqalayn, which mentions about being responsible towards Ahlulbayt.

The reason, Prophet(Saw) did so, is most likely because he realized that people criticized a member of his household(Ahlulbayt), who took his right from Khums, therefore Prophet(saw) felt the need to remind the people about the importance of taking care of his Ahlulbayt and to be responsible towards them, after him. Because his relatives due to relation with him, were prohibited from accepting Sadaqa(charity), and if some Muslims criticize or object against them, for taking their right, like a share from Khums, which was a right given to them by Allah in Quran, then that would create a big problem for his Ahlulbayt, since they weren’t even eligible to receive charity. And it would even be against Quran. This is the reason, Prophet(saw) mentioned Hadeeth Thaqalayn, where the purpose of mentioning Ahlulbayt, was to remind people about taking their care and for being responsible towards them.

This is the reason, noble Sahabi(companion) Zaid bin Arqam(ra) believed that, Ahlulbayt in regards to hadeeth Thaqalayn were those relatives of Prophet(saw) on whom acceptance of Sadaqa was forbidden, since these same people were eligible to receive a portion from Khums.

We read in Shia book regarding the ruling on Zakat:

وتحرم الزكاة الواجبة علي بني هاشم جميعا من ولد أمير المؤمنين علي بن أبي طالب عليه السلام، وجعفر، وعقيل، والعباس رضي اللهعنهم

Zakat is haram for all the Bani Hashim, from the progeny of Imam Ali(as), Ja’far bin abi Talib, Aqil bin abi Talib, and Abbas bin Abdul Muttalib, may Allah (swt) be pleased with them. (Al Muqniah by Shaikh Mufid, Page 243)

We read in Shia book regarding the ruling on Khums:

مسألة: المشهور أن المراد باليتامى والمساكين وابن السبيل في آية الخمس من قرابة النبي – صلى الله عليه وآله – من بني هاشمخاصة، ذهب إليه الشيخان، وابن أبي عقيل، وأبو الصلاح، وباقي فقهائنا

It is popular among our scholars that what is meant by the orphans, the poor ones, and the wayfarer, in the verse of khums (8:41), among the kindred of the Prophet (saw), are those exclusively from the Bani Hashim. Among those who advocated this view are Shaikh Mufid, Shaikh Tusi, ibn abi Aqil, Abu Salah, and other scholars.(Mukhtalif al Shia by Shia Allama Hilli, Volume 3 Page 330).

Comment: As can be seen, the ruling is the same with regards to khums as well, the ruling applies in general to all the Bani Hashim, not just the children of Fatima(ra) and Ali(ra). It is applicable on all whether they are righteous or not. This is same as the way, Zaid bin Arqam(ra) generalized Ahlulbayt.

The explanation and understanding of Sahabi Zaid bin Arqam(ra) is further strengthened by a reliable version of hadeeth Thaqalayn, which has the expression “Kitab Allah wa `Itrati Ahlu-Bayti“, we know that Ahlul-Bayt refers to the household, let’s discover what the `Itrah means in Arabic.

In the traditional Arabic dictionary Lisan ul-Arab 4/536 by Ibn Manthur, we read:

والمشهور المعروف أَن عتْرتَه أَهلُ بيته وهم الذين حُرّمَت عليهم الزكاة والصدقة المفروضة وهم ذوو القربى الذين لهم خُمُسُ الخُمُسِ المذكور في سورة الأَنفال

“And what is famously recognized is that his ‘Itrah’ are the People of his Household, and they are those upon whom Zakaah and the mandatory Sadaqah is prohibited; and they are the relatives (Thuw al-Qurbaa) who are due a fifth of the spoils of war(Khums), mentioned in Surat al-Anfal.”]

Therefore, it is proven that, as per the understanding of noble companion Zaid(ra), the purpose behind the mention of Ahlulbay in hadeeth Thaqalayn was to remind people about taking care of them and to be responsible towards them, not to adhere them or to seek their guidance, and this is the actual and correct understanding of hadeeth Thaqalayn.

This is further strengthened by the established fact that, before the perfection of religion at Farewell sermon on Arafah, ONLY Quran was mentioned as a source of guidance adhering to which Muslims would not go astray; there was no mention of Ahlulbayt in any authentic tradition about Farewell sermon.

Our view is also supported by the fact, that Jabir bin Abdullah(ra) who narrated the Farewell sermon to Muhammad bin Ali(Al-Baqir), led them in prayer(Salah).

Ja’far bin Muhammad reported on the authority of his father: We went to Jabir bin Abdullah and he began inquiring about the people (who had gone to see him) till it was my turn. I said: I am Muhammad bin ‘Ali bin Husain. He placed his hand upon my head and opened my upper button and then the lower one and then placed his palm on my chest (in order to bless me), and I was, during those days, a young boy, and he said: You are welcome, my nephew. Ask whatever you want to ask. And I asked him but as he was blind (he could not respond to me immediately), and the time for prayer came. He stood up covering himself in his mantle. And whenever he placed its ends upon his shoulders they slipped down on account of being short (in size). Another mantle was, however, lying on the clothes rack near by. And he led us in the prayer. I said to him: Tell me about the Hajj of Allah’s Messenger(saw). [Sahih Muslim, Book 7, Hadith 2803].

We find that Jabir bin Abdullah(ra) narrated to Muhammad bin Ali(Al-Baqir) about the final Hajj of Prophet(saw) before his death and it even included the Farewell sermon of Prophet(saw) in it, yet Jabir bin Abdullah led them in prayer in his house. Had it been that, he believed that adhering to Ahlulbayt or seeking guidance only through them or taking them as leaders was said by Prophet(saw) , then Jabir bin Abdullah wouldn’t have led the prayer in presence of Muhammad Al-Baqir(rah), he would have made Muhammad Al-Baqir(rah) lead the prayer. This also proves that, the purpose behind the mention of Ahlulbayt in Thaqalayn was not that they be taken as a source of guidance adhering whom Muslims would not go astray.

Note: We anticipate that, some biased and incompetent readers might jump to conclusion that, we mean to say that Ahlulbayt are not a source of guidance nor they should be adhered. No! This is not what we are saying, because Ahl us-sunnah does believe that just like Sahaba, even Ahlulbayt are a source of guidance and should be followed in goodness just as Quran commands to follow the foremost of Muhajireen and Ansar(9:100). We believe that adherence to them and following them is conditional, similar to the case of following Sahaba. Infact, we take a big part of our religion from the narrations of the scholars of the prophetic-household such as:`Ali ibn abi Talib (ra), `Abdullah ibn al-`Abbas (ra), `Abdullah bin Ja`far al-Tayyar (ra), wives of Prophet(saw) and others.

However, in regards to hadeeth Thaqalayn the purpose behind the mention of Ahlulbayt in it, was not regarding adhering them to be protected from going astray, rather the reason they were mentioned in Thaqalayn, was to remind people to take care of them and to be responsible towards them.

Even`Ali(RA) agrees with Sunni understanding of Hadith al-Thaqalayn, that the only means of guidance left behind by the Prophet(SAWS) is Allah’s book(Quran) :

ثُمَّ اخْتَارَ سُبْحَانَهُ لِمحَمَّد صلى الله عليه لِقَاءَهُ، وَرَضِيَ لَهُ مَا عِنْدَهُ، فَأَكْرَمَهُ عَنْ دَارِالدُّنْيَا، وَرَغِبَ بِهَ عَنْ مُقَارَنَةِ البَلْوَى، فَقَبَضَهُ إِلَيْهِ كَرِيماً صَلَّى اللهُ علَيهِ و آلِهوَخَلَّفَ فِيكُمْ مَا خَلَّفَتِ الاْنْبيَاءُ في أُمَمِها، إذْ لَم يَتْرُكُوهُمْ هَمَلاً، بِغَيْر طَريق واضِح، ولاَعَلَمٍ قَائِم. كِتَابَ رَبِّكُمْ [فِيكُمْ:] مُبَيِّناً حَلاَلَهُ وَحَرامَهُ، وَفَرَائِضَهُ وَفَضَائِلَهُ، وَنَاسِخَهُ وَمَنْسُوخَهُ، وَرُخَصَهُ وَعَزَائِمَهُ، وَخَاصَّهُ وَعَامَّهُ، وَعِبَرَهُ وَأَمْثَالَهُ، وَمُرْسَلَهُ وَمَحْدُودَهُ، وَمُحْكَمَهُ وَمُتَشَابِهَهُ، مُفَسِّراً جُمَلَهُ، وَمُبَيِّناً غَوَامِضَهُ.
[…Then Allah chose for Muhammad (saw) to meet Him, selected him for His own nearness, regarded him too dignified to remain in this world and decided to remove him from this place of trial. So He drew him towards Himself with honor. He (saw) left among you the same thing other Prophets left among their peoples, because Prophets do not leave them untended without a clear path and a standing ensign, namely the Book of your Creator clarifying its permission and prohibitions, its obligations and discretion…](Nahjul Balagha, Sermon 1).

Ali(RA) doesn’t mention that the Prophet(saw) left behind the Qur’an and Ahlul-Bayt as guidance, only the Qur’an and this was the way of previous prophets.

 

X. Sahabi’s understanding of Hadeeth in comparision to the understanding of people who came after.

We read:

وقد ذكر سنيد قال حدثنا معتمر عن سلام بن مسكين عن قتادة قال قال ابن مسعود: من كان منكم متأسيا فليتأس بأصحاب رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فإنهم كانوا أبر هذه الأمة قلوبا، وأعمقها علما، وأقلها تكلفا، وأقومها هديا، وأحسنها حالا، آختارهم الله لصحبة نبيه صلى الله عليه وسلم وإقامة دينه، فاعرفوا لهم فضلهم، واتبعوهم في آثارهم، فإنهم كانوا على الهدى المستقيم.

‘Abd-Allah ibn Mas’ood(ra) said: “Whoever wants to follow an example, let him follow the example of those who have passed away, the Companions of Muhammad (S). They were the best of this ummah, the purest in heart, the DEEPEST in knowledge, the least in sophistication. They were people whom Allah chose to be the Companions of His Prophet (S) and to convey His religion, so imitate their ways and behaviour, for they were following the Straight Path.” [Tafseer Al-Qurtabi and Sharh as-Sunnah of Al-Baghawi]

Similarly we read:

1143 – وحدثنا ابن عبد الحميد قال : حدثنا يعقوب بن إبراهيم الدورقي قال : حدثنا حكام بن سلم الرازي ، عن عمرو بن أبي قيس ، عن عبد ربه قال : كنا عند الحسن في مجلس ، فذكر كلاما ، وذكر أصحاب النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فقال : « أولئك أصحاب محمد كانوا أبر هذه الأمة قلوبا ، وأعمقها علما ، وأقلها تكلفا ، قوم اختارهم الله عز وجل لصحبة نبيه ، وإقامة دينه ، فتشبهوا بأخلاقهم وطرائقهم ، فإنهم كانوا ورب الكعبة على الهدي المستقيم »

Al-Hasan Al-Basri said: Those are the companions of Mohammad, best in the heart, DEEPEST in knowledge, without going out of their way. They were chosen by Allah to accompany his prophet, to stabilize the religion, so follow their manners and ways, for by Allah they were on the straight path.( Al-Sharee’a by Al-Ajurri 1143)

In the first report, Abdullah ibn Masood is telling the Tabaeen, who are the second greatest generation, to follow those who have passed away, that is the companions(sahaba) of Muhammad(saw). Abdullah ibn Masood(ra) was saying this in the time of second best generation(Tabaeen). And he gives some reasons for following the Sahaba, one of which is, “they were DEEPEST in knowledge” – notice here the choice of words, Abdullah Ibn Masood(ra) as well as Hasan Al-Basri(rah) didn’t say, Sahaba had the MOST knowledge, but they said Sahaba had the DEEPEST knowledge; because there were people who came after Sahaba, who might know things which Sahaba may not have known, for example Imam Al-Bukhari knew more ahadeeth than many Sahaba, because he knew of ahadeeth which different Sahaba had, he knew ahadeeth which Umar(ra) had, which Ali(ra) had, which Ibn Abbas(ra) had, which Abu Huraira(ra) had, which Ayesha(ra) had, etc, He was an encyclopaedia of Hadeeth. So Abdullah ibn Masood(ra) and Hasan Al-Basri didn’t say they had the most knowledge, but they said Sahaba had the DEEPEST knowledge.

So even though some of the scholars who came later knew the things which some of the Sahaba didn’t know, however none of the people who came after Sahaba have the depth of knowledge that the Sahaba had, because even though a Sahabi may know only two hundred hadeeth or three hundred hadeeth, but he was there when those ahadeeth were spoken by Prophet Muhammad(saw), He knew the circumstances, He knew why Prophet(saw) said it, He was there, he experienced it first hand, therefore everyone who came after Sahaba is just scratching the surface of knowledge, whereas Sahaba lived that hadeeth, an opportunity that none of the people who came after has, so sahaba had an edge over everyone who came later. This is the reason Abdullah Ibn Masood(ra) advised people to follow the understanding of Sahaba in comparison to those who came after.

In the previous section we have proven, by the help of Allah, that as per the understanding of Sahabi Zaid bin Arqam(ra), the purpose behind mention of Ahlulbayt in hadeeth Thaqalayn, WAS NOT that, they are to be adhered and taken as a source of guidance, inorder to be protected from going astray, since he made a generalized statement and believed that Ahlulbayt in hadeeth Thaqalayn are all those relatives of Prophet(saw) upon whom acceptance of Sadaqa is forbidden, which even included people from Bani Hashim, who could be unrighteous.

Now, we are aware that there are some Sunni scholars who on the basis of some weak reports with faulty text, reported in a twisted form by unreliable narrators; explained the hadeeth thaqalayn to mean adhering to Ahlulbayt and following their guidance. Even though we believe that Ahlulbayt should be adhered and followed in a conditional way, just like Sahaba, but we disagree with the view of those scholars who say that, the meaning of hadeeth Thaqalayn is adhering Ahlulbayt and following their guidance, because the understanding of these scholars based on weak and unreliable reports with faulty and twisted text, goes against the understanding of noble Sahabi Zaid bin Arqam(ra). Therefore, these scholars erred in their understanding.

And as we quoted the words of Abdullah ibn Masood(ra) and Hasan Al-Basri(rah), Sahaba had the deepest knowledge, their understanding was deep, they understood the hadeeth way better than those who came later. Therefore the understanding of Sahabi will be given preference over the understanding of scholars who came later. So in the case of hadeeth Thaqalayn also, the understanding of Zaid bin Arqam(ra) would be followed, because he was there when those words were spoken by Prophet Muhammad(saw), He knew the circumstance, He knew why Prophet(saw) said it, He was there, he experienced it first hand, therefore scholars who came centuries later are just scratching the surface of knowledge and they can be wrong, whereas Zaid bin Arqam(ra) fully understood the hadeeth Thaqalayn and He didn’t believe that Ahlulbayt are a source of guidance adhering whom, Muslims would not go astray, as we explained in the previous section.

Hence, the understanding of later scholars is a no match in comparision to the understanding of Sahabi Zaid bin Arqam(ra). And the understanding of Sahabi is highly preferred over the understandings of all those scholars who misunderstood hadeeth Thaqalayn. Also, refer the Section (III), where we quoted the explanation of those scholars who understood Hadeeth Thaqalayn correctly, which supports the understanding of Sahabi – Zaid bin Arqam(ra).

 

XI. Why did the mention of Ahlulbayt occur at Ghadeer, even though Quran was already declared as the source of guidance before the perfection of religion?

The mention of Ahlulbayt at Ghadeer was in relation to what occurred during Hajj, when the army whose commander was Ali(ra) returned from Yemen to Makkah. The soldiers from the army made multiple complains against their commander -Ali(ra) – who was a member of Ahlulbayt, and one of the complaint was that Ali(ra) had taken a slave girl from Khums, therefore Prophet(saw) rebuked those who complained against Ali(ra) and said that Ali(ra) even deserved more than that from Khums. We read:

Narrated Buraida:The Prophet (saw) sent `Ali to Khalid to bring the Khums (of the booty) and I hated `Ali, and `Ali had taken a bath (after a sexual act with a slave-girl from the Khums). I said to Khalid, “Don’t you see this (i.e. `Ali)?” When we reached the Prophet (saw) I mentioned that to him. He said, “O Buraida! Do you hate `Ali?” I said, “Yes.” He said, “Do you hate him, for he deserves more than that from the Khums.”( Sahih al-Bukhari #4350).

Therefore, on the way back to Madina after Hajj, and after religion was perfected at Arafah and after Farewell Sermon was given at Makkah; Prophet(saw) stopped at a resting place called Ghadeer Khum, and there he addressed people for befriending and loving Ali(ra) who was a member of Ahlulbayt, and He(saw) mentioned hadeeth Thaqalayn, where the purpose behind the mention of Ahlulbayt, was to remind people about, taking care of Ahlulbayt and being responsible towards them.

The reason, Prophet(Saw) did so, is most likely because he realized that people criticized a member of his household(Ahlulbayt), who took his right from Khums, therefore Prophet(saw) felt the need to remind the people about the importance of taking care of his Ahlulbayt and to be responsible towards them, after him. Because his relatives due to relation with him, were prohibited from accepting Sadaqa(charity), and if some Muslims criticize them for taking a share from Khums, which was their right given by Allah in Quran, then that would create a big problem for his Ahlulbayt, especially those who were not financially strong, since they weren’t even eligible to receive charity.  And it would even be against Quran, since relatives of Prophet(saw) were eligible to receive a share from Khums, as per Quran. This is the reason, Prophet(saw) mentioned Hadeeth Thaqalayn, where the purpose of mentioning Ahlulbayt was to take their care and to be responsible towards them.

In the traditional Arabic dictionary Lisan ul-Arab 4/536 by Ibn Manthur, we read:

والمشهور المعروف أَن عتْرتَه أَهلُ بيته وهم الذين حُرّمَت عليهم الزكاة والصدقة المفروضة وهم ذوو القربى الذين لهم خُمُسُ الخُمُسِ المذكور في سورة الأَنفال

“And what is famously recognized is that his ‘Itrah’ are the People of his Household, and they are those upon whom Zakaah and the mandatory Sadaqah is prohibited; and they are the relatives (Thuw al-Qurbaa) who are due a fifth of the spoils of war(Khums), mentioned in Surat al-Anfal.”

We read in Shia book regarding the ruling on Zakat:

وتحرم الزكاة الواجبة علي بني هاشم جميعا من ولد أمير المؤمنين علي بن أبي طالب عليه السلام، وجعفر، وعقيل، والعباس رضي اللهعنهم

Zakat is haram for all the Bani Hashim, from the progeny of Imam Ali(as), Ja’far bin abi Talib, Aqil bin abi Talib, and Abbas bin Abdul Muttalib, may Allah (swt) be pleased with them. (Al Muqniah by Shaikh Mufid, Page 243)

We read in Shia book regarding the ruling on Khums:

مسألة: المشهور أن المراد باليتامى والمساكين وابن السبيل في آية الخمس من قرابة النبي – صلى الله عليه وآله – من بني هاشمخاصة، ذهب إليه الشيخان، وابن أبي عقيل، وأبو الصلاح، وباقي فقهائنا

It is popular among our scholars that what is meant by the orphans, the poor ones, and the wayfarer, in the verse of khums (8:41), among the kindred of the Prophet (saw), are those exclusively from the Bani Hashim. Among those who advocated this view are Shaikh Mufid, Shaikh Tusi, ibn abi Aqil, Abu Salah, and other scholars.(Mukhtalif al Shia by Shia Allama Hilli, Volume 3 Page 330)

As can be seen, the ruling in regards to khums is same as forbidden of charity. The ruling in both cases applies in a general sense to all the Bani Hashim.

This is the reason, noble Sahabi(companion) Zaid bin Arqam(ra) understood that, Ahlulbayt in regards to hadeeth Thaqalayn were those relatives of Prophet(saw) on whom acceptance of Sadaqa was forbidden, since these same relatives were eligible to receive a portion from Khums.

Hence, due this reason, the mention of Ahlulbayt occurred at Ghadeer, even though Quran was already declared as the source of guidance adhering which Muslims would not go astray, before the perfection of religion.

 

XII. Who are Ahlulbayt mentioned in hadeeth Thaqalayn?

As per the understanding of noble companion(Sahabi) of Prophet(saw) – Zaid bin Arqam(ra) – who was present at that moment when Prophet(saw) spoke those words, who lived that moment and was aware under which circumstances Prophet(saw) said those words; according to him Ahlulbayt mentioned in Hadeeth Thaqalayn were ALL those relatives of Prophet(saw), upon whom acceptance of Sadaqa(charity) was forbidden. We read:

Husain said to Zaid bin Arqam(ra) : Who are the members of his household? Aren’t his wives the members of his family? Thereupon he said: His wives are the members of his family (but here) the members of his family are those for whom acceptance of Zakat is forbidden. And he said: Who are they? Thereupon he said: ‘Ali and the offspring of ‘Ali, ‘Aqil and the offspring of ‘Aqil and the offspring of Ja’far and the offspring of ‘Abbas. Husain said: These are those for whom the acceptance of Zakat is forbidden. Zaid said: Yes. (Sahih Muslim, Book 31, Hadith 5920).

The explanation and understanding of Sahabi Zaid bin Arqam(ra) is further strengthened by a reliable version of hadeeth Thaqalayn, which has the expression “Kitab Allah wa `Itrati Ahlu-Bayti“, we know that Ahlul-Bayt refers to the household, let’s discover what the `Itrah means in Arabic.

In the traditional Arabic dictionary Lisan ul-Arab 4/536 by Ibn Manthur, we read:

والمشهور المعروف أَن عتْرتَه أَهلُ بيته وهم الذين حُرّمَت عليهم الزكاة والصدقة المفروضة وهم ذوو القربى الذين لهم خُمُسُ الخُمُسِ المذكور في سورة الأَنفال

“And what is famously recognized is that his ‘Itrah’ are the People of his Household, and they are those upon whom Zakaah and the mandatory Sadaqah is prohibited; and they are the relatives (Thuw al-Qurbaa) who are due a fifth of the spoils of war(Khums), mentioned in Surat al-Anfal.”

The Imam al-Tawrbashti said in Al-Marqah 5/600:

عترة الرجل: أهل بيته ورهطه الأدنون، ولاستعمالهم “العترة” على أنحاء كثيرة بينها رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم بقوله: “أهل بيتي” ليعلم أنه أراد بذلك نسله وعصابته الأدنين وأزواجه

[The `Itrah of the man: It means the members of his household and his closest companions. Due to their usage of the word `Itrah with many meanings, the Messenger of Allah (saw) explained it here with his statement, “Ahli Bayti” (my family members or the members of my household), so that it may be known by this that he meant his progeny, and his closest relatives and his wives.

Therefore we find that the meaning of Itrah is not just family of Fatima(ra) and Ali(ra), but it includes, the progeny of Prophet(saw), his close relatives and wives. In other words, they are those relatives of Prophet(saw) on whom acceptance of Sadaqa(charity) is prohibited, which matches with the explanation given by Zaid bin Arqam(ra). Therefore, the presence of the word ‘Itra’ in hadeeth thaqalayn, further strengthens the understanding of Zaid bin Arqam(ra) that Ahlulbayt in regards to Hadeeth Thaqalayn are those relatives of Prophet(saw) upon whom acceptance of Sadaqa is forbidden.

 

XIII. Even the wives of Prophet(saw) are included in Ahlulbayt mentioned in Hadeeth Thaqalayn.

(Husain) said to Zaid: Who are the members of his household? Aren’t his wives the members of his family? Thereupon he said: His wives are the members of his family (but here) the members of his family are those for whom acceptance of Zakat is forbidden.(Sahih Muslim, Book 31, Hadith 5920)

Even though Zaid(ra) was spot on and accurate in his understanding, that Ahlulbayt mentioned in Hadeeth Thaqalayn are those relatives of Prophet Muhammad(saw) on whom acceptance of Sadaqa(charity) was forbidden. However, Zaid(ra) wasn’t aware that acceptance of charity was forbidden even on wives of Prophet(saw), therefore he viewed that wives of Prophet(saw) aren’t included in Ahlulbayt mentioned in Hadeeth Thaqalayn, and this view was held by a group of scholars, such Mahmud Al-Alusi, the author of Ruh Al-Ma’ani and others. However, the correct view is that acceptance of Sadaqa(charity) is even forbidden on wives of Prophet(saw), and this was stated by none other than a wife of Prophet(saw) herself.

Here we will list out some strong evidences which establishes that acceptance of charity was even forbidden on wives of Prophet(saw), which implies that even they are included in Ahulbayt mentioned in Hadeeth Thaqalayn.

We read in Musannaf ibn abi shaybah (chapter Laa tahillu al-sadqa ala bani hashim)
ابن أبي مليكة أن خالد بن سعيد بعث إلى عائشة ببقرة من الصدقة فردتها وقالت إنا آل محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم لا تحل لنا الصدقة
Narrated with sahih sanad From Ibn Abu Malika [narrated] that: Khaled Ibn Saeed sent a cow from the Sadaqah to Aisha, so she sent it back and said: We are the Aal of Muhammad(saw) the sadaqah is not permissible for us. [Isnad Sahih as per sheikh Abdul Muhsin bin Hammad Al-’Abbad Al-Badr in his book the “Status of Ahlebayt in the sight of Ahle Sunnah, page 12 ]

In following tradition Prophet(saw) spoke with ‘Aisha (ra) regarding her female servant, this is how it goes:

Narrated ‘Aisha: I intended to buy buraira but her masters stipulated that her Wala should be for them. When the Prophet was told about it, he said to me, “Buy and manumit her, as the Wala’ is for the liberator.” Once buraira was given some meat, and the Prophet asked, “What is this?” I said, “It has been given to buraira in charity.” He said, “It is sadaqa for her but a gift for us.” buraira was given the option (to stay with her husband or to part with him). [Sahi bukhari, Book #47, Hadith #752]

Comment: Notice Prophet(saw) was talking with ‘Aisha (ra) and he told her “For us it is a gift” which means that for the Prophet(saw) and ‘Aisha (ra) both, he’ll consider it a gift since they do not take Sadaqah(charity), but for Buraira it is a Sadaqah. He didn’t say for me its gift, but for you and buraira it’s Sadaqa.

Scholars who considered that sadaqa was prohibited even on wives of Prophet(Saw)

(1).

مِمَّا ذكره ابن القيِّم في كتابه (( جلاء الأفهام )) (ص:331 – 333) للاحتجاج للقائلِين بدخول أزواجه صلى الله عليه وسلم في آل بيته قوله: (( قال هؤلاء: وإنَّما دخل الأزواجُ في الآل وخصوصاً أزواجُ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم تشبيهاً لذلك بالنَّسَب؛ لأنَّ اتِّصالَهُنَّ بالنَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم غيرُ مرتفع، وهنَّ محرَّماتٌ على غيرِه في حياتِه وبعد مَمَاتِه، وهنَّ زوجاتُه في الدنيا والآخرة، فالسَّببُ الذي لهنَّ بالنَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قائمٌ مقامَ النَّسَب، وقد نصَّ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم على الصلاةِ عليهنَّ، ولهذا كان القولُ الصحيح – وهو منصوص الإمام أحمد رحمه الله ـ أنَّ الصَّدقةَ تحرُمُ عليهنَّ ، لأنَّها أوساخُ الناسِ، وقد صان اللهُ سبحانه ذلك الجَنَابَ الرَّفيع، وآلَه مِن كلِّ أوساخِ بَنِي آدَم

“And as it has been related by Ibn Qayyim in his book “Jalaa al afham” page 331-333 as proof that his (pbuh) wives are part of Ahl al Bayt. “Wives are part of the Ahl, and specifically, the wives of the Prophet (pbuh) are Ahl al Bayt, because they are connected to the Prophet (pbuh) without disconnect, and because they are forbidden to others in marriage in this life and the next, and they are his wives in this life and the next, so the connection here is a fixed relationship, and the Prophet (pbuh) has said that one must send peace and blessings upon them, and that’s the correct position, and it’s related by Imam Ahmed that sadaqa is forbidden for them, because it is the refuse of people, and because God has protected the family of the Prophet (pbuh) from any filth.”

(2).

قال الحموي : وفي المغني عن عائشة رضي الله عنها : أنا آل محمد لا تحل لنا الصدقة

al Hamwee said: and in the Mughni from Aisha’ (may God be pleased with her) that she said: “We the family of the Prophet (pbuh) aren’t permitted Sadaqathis is evidence that it is forbidden for them. [In the margin of Rad al Muhtar of Ibn Abidin, Volume 2, page 384.]

(3).

كشاف القناع – البهوتي ج 2 ص 337 :
في المغني والشرح عن ابن أبي مليكة : أن خالد بن سعيد بن العاص أرسل إلى عائشة بسفرة من الصدقة فردتها وقالت : إنا آل محمد لا تحل لنا الصدقة رواه الخلال . فهذا يدل على تحريمها عليهن . ولم يذكر ما يخالفه ، مع أنهم لم يذكروا هذا في الوصية والوقف . وهذا يدل على أنهن من أهل بيته في تحريم الزكاة . وذكر الشيخ تقي الدين : أنه يحرم عليهن الصدقة . وأنهن من أهل بيته في أصح الروايتين ورده المجد .

In the Mughni and explanation by Ibn Aby Malika: that Khalid bin Sa’eed bin Al Aas sent to Aisha some sadaqa but she returned it saying: We the family of the Prophet (pbuh) aren’t permitted sadaqa, narrated by Al Khalaal. And this is evidence that it is forbidden for them. And he didn’t mention what opposes this. Even though they didn’t mention this in Wills and Donations. And this is evidence that they are from his family in being forbidden zakat. And sheikh Taqee al Deen said: Sadaqa is forbidden for them. And they are from his Ahl al Bayt in the more correct of the narrations. Kashshaf al Fattah, Al Bahooti, volume 2, page 337

(4).

وقال السخاوي في القول البديع في بيان صيغة الصلاة في التشهّد: فالمرجع أنّهم من حرمت عليهم الصدقة، وذكر أنّه اختيار الجمهور ونصّ الشافعي، وأنّ مذهب أحمد أنّهم أهل البيت، وقيل: المراد أزواجه وذرّيّته… (عن هامش الصواعق المحرقة لعبد الوهاب عبد اللطيف: 146 ط. مصر 1385 هـ ).

Al Sakhawi says in “Al Qawl al badee fee bayaan Seeghat al Salaat fee altashahud”: and the conclusion is that they are those for whom charity is forbidden, and it has been mentioned that this is the opinion of the majority, and this is related from Al Shaf’ee, and in the school of Ahmed bin Hanbal that those are the Ahl al Bayt, and it was said: what is meant are his wives and his descendents.

(5).

وقال القسطلاني: ان الراجح أنّهم من حرمت عليهم الصدقة، كما نص عليه الشافعي واختاره الجمهور ويؤيده قوله صلّى الله عليه وسلّم للحسن بن عليّ: إنّا آل محمّد لا تحل لنا الصدقة، وقيل المراد بآل محمّد أزواجه وذرّيّته.

Al Qastalani said: the correct answer is that they are those for whom charity is forbidden, as was recorded by al Shaf’ee and what was selected by the majority and supported by what was said by al Hassan bin Ali: The family of Muhammad, charity is not permitted for us, and it was said that what is meant by the family of Muhammad are his wives and descendents. [Al Kashf wal Bayaan by Al Thaalabi]

Therefore, in the light of these evidences it is proven that, acceptance of charity(Sadaqah) is also forbidden on wives of Prophet(saw), and Zaid(ra) wasn’t aware of this fact. Therefore, even the wives of Prophet(saw) are included in Ahlulbayt mentioned in hadeeth Thaqalayn.

Even if for the sake of argument, the view of Zaid(ra) is considered, then we see that Zaid(ra) did accept wives of Prophet(saw) being Ahlulbayt, but not from those mentioned in Thaqalayn, this can be explained in this way that, after Prophet(saws) death, his wives have support from their families and tribes, so the ones the Prophet(saws) was telling us to take care of are the other members of his family who have no means of support after him.

 

Objection One:

Wives of Prophet(saw) were not included in Hadeeth of cloak(Kisa), so they are not Ahlulbayt.

Response:

Wives of Prophet(saw) are Ahlulbayt as per Quran, when we refer the context of verse 33 of Surah Ahzaab(33) in Quran, we will clearly see in the clear Book of Allah, that wives of Prophet(saw) are Ahlulbayt. Moreover, wives of Prophet(saw) being Ahlulbayt is even proven from various authentic traditions which has been collected in this article. [Quran and several sahi narrations explicitly shows that wives of prophet(Saw) are ahlebayt].

As for the misconception that wives of Prophet(saw) are not Ahlulbayt, because they were not included in the cloak(Kisa) when Prophet(saw) made dua(supplication) for members under the cloak, then the answer to this misconception is that, they were not included by Prophet in the dua(supplication) he made, because wives of Prophet were the ones for whom the verse of purification(33:33) was revealed, therefore there was no need for Prophet(saw) to include them in the dua(supplication).

Imam Ibn Hajar states:

This word house ‘Albayt’ has a different meaning to it because the ‘Ahlulbayt’ of the progeny of the Holy Prophet (saw) came from Khadijah(ra) which proves the explanation of the verse, ‘And stay in your houses and do not display your finery like the displaying of the ignorance of yore; and keep up prayer, and pay the poor-rate, and obey Allah and His Apostle. Allah only desires to keep away the uncleanness from you, O people of the House! And to purify you a (thorough) purifying’ (33.33). Um Salama said: When the verse was revealed the Prophet(saw)- called Fatima(ra), Ali(ra), Hassan(ra) and Hussain (ra), and he (saw) placed them under the cloak and said, “O Allah (swt)! These are my Ahlulbayt.” This has been recorded in the Saheeh Collection. [Source: Fath Al Bari. Vol. 7, Pg. # 169]

Prophet(saw) making dua(supplication) for those members inside cloak(Fatima, Ali, Hassan, Hussain – May Allah be pleased with them) itself is a proof that the verse of purification(tatheer) was not revealed for them. This is why, Prophet(saw) was quick to make dua(supplication) for them, so that even they be included in the favour of Allah which he had intended for wives of Prophet(saw). Had it been that the verse of purification(tatheer) was revealed for people of cloak(kisa) then there was no need for the Prophet(saw) to repeatedly make the dua(supplication) , since as per the verse of Quran, Allah(swt) had already intended to purify those who were addressed in the verse of purification.

The verse of purification(Tatheer) was revealed for wives of Prophet(saw):

عن ابن عباس : ?إنما يريد الله ليذهب عنكم الرجس أهل البيت ( [ الأحزاب : 33 ] . قال : نزلت في أزواج النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم خاصة .
الراوي: عكرمة المحدث: الذهبي – المصدر: سير أعلام النبلاء – لصفحة أو الرقم: 2/221
خلاصة حكم المحدث: إسناده صالح

Ibn Abbas(ra): “Allah intends only to remove from you the impurity [of sin], O people of the [Prophet’s] household,” He said: It was revealed especially about the wives of the prophet(saw). (Siyar A’alam al nubalaa, vol 2, page 221; Grading: Saalih(reliable) Isnad).

Ibn Kathir in his commentary (6/410) wrote:
حدثنا علي بن حرب الموصلي، حدثنا زيد بن الحباب، حدثنا حسين بن واقد، عن يزيد النحوي، عن عكرمة عن ابن عباس في قوله: { إنما يريد الله ليذهب عنكم الرجس أهل البيت } قال: نزلت في نساء النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم خاصة.
“Reported Ali ibn Harb Mausuli, from Zyed ibn Habab, Husayn ibn Vakad, Yazeed Nakhu, from Ikrima, from ibn Abbas, that he said about this verse: “O people of the House! and to purify you a (thorough) purifying” —“it was revealed concerning to wives of prophet(saw)”.

Imam Suyuti quotes this hadith:

وأخرج ابن سعد عن عروة رضي الله عنه { إنما يريد الله ليذهب عنكم الرجس أهل البيت } قال: يعني أزواج النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم نزلت في بيت عائشة رضي الله عنها

Imam Ibn S’ad (ra) narrates from Urwa who said: { O people of the House! and to purify you a (thorough) purifying} Meaning wives of Prophet (saw). This verse was revealed in the house of Ayesha(ra). (Tabaqat, Ibn Sad narrated in volume 8, p 199)

Suyoote in “Durr al mansur” reported:
وأخرج ابن مردويه من طريق سعيد بن جبير رضي الله عنه عن ابن عباس رضي الله عنهما قال : نزلت في نساء النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم
“Ibn Mardaveyh reported via Saed ibn Jubayr, that ibn Abbas said (about this verse): It was revealed about prophet’s woman”. [Source: “Durr al mansur” 6/603].

Abu’l-Qasim ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Muhammad al-Sarraj informed us> Muhammad ibn Ya‘qub> al-Hasan ibn ‘Ali ibn ‘Affan> Abu Yahya al-Hamani> Salih ibn Musa al-Qurashi> Khusayf> Sa‘id ibn Jubayr> Ibn ‘Abbas who said: “This verse was revealed about the wives of the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace (Allah’s wish is but to remove uncleanness far from you, O Folk of the Household, and cleanse you with a thorough cleansing)”.

Ibn Jarir recorded that `Ikrimah used to call out in the marketplace:(Allah wishes only to remove Ar-Rijs from you, O members of the family, and to purify you with a thorough purification.(33:33)) “This was revealed solely concerning the wives of the Prophet.”(tafseer ibn katheer, for 33:33)

For detail discussion on this matter, please refer our article: [A Scientific Dialogue Regarding Incident Of Kisa].

 

Objection Two:

The tradition from Ibn Abbas(ra) which says that verse of Tatheer was revealed for wives of Prophet(saw) was reported on the authority of Ikrimah the Kharji.

Response:

This narrator is ‘Ikrimah al-Barbari, Mawla of Ibn ‘Abbas. He is considered Thiqa(trustworthy) by Sunni scholars and his narrations are present in all the books of Sihah Sittah. He was specialized in Tafseer(commentary of Quran).

Regarding the criticism on Ikrima, then that is based on some unreliable reports. Imam Ibn Hajar did comment on some of those reports in which Ikrimah was criticized in the beginning of Al-Fath, but what some dishonest people do is that they only take those reports on criticism of Ikrimah but not the answers and comments of scholars on them. What is clear is that, a lot of these statements of criticism were falsely attributed. Take for example the statement of Yazeed bin Abi Ziyad that Ali bin Abdullah bin Abbas used to beat Ikrimah. Yazeed is weak and Ibn Hibban rejected this statement by him. Yahya bin Ma’een is known to have referred to Ikrimah as trustworthy in more than one occasion. We will also notice that Imam Malik quoted Ikrimah in Al-Muwatta, and he usually only quotes narrators he finds to be trustworthy.

To make the Shia understand this in a better way, we would like to bring up the example of Shia narrator Zurarah ibn A’yan, we find that this highly important Shia narrator was heavily criticized by Shia Imams in their books, yet Shia scholars reject those reports and consider him trustworthy. So they should consider the case of Ikrimah too, similar to Zurarah.

Secondly, even if for sake of argument it is supposed that Ikrimah was a Khariji, even then it doesn’t give a dent to the authenticity of the hadeeth, because Ikrimah is a Thiqa(trustworthy) narrator; And Khawarij were even known for their hatred for Ayesha(ra) – They disagreed with the decision of Ali(ra) for not taking battle booty from the party of Ayesha(ra) and taking them as captives after Battle of Jamal, due to which Ibn Abbas(ra) debated them and rebuked them. So Ikrima narrating the hadeeth of Ibn Abbas(ra) doesn’t affect the reliability of Hadeeth.

Praise of Ikrimah’s knowledge in Tafseer(commentary of Quran).

Qatada said: “Most knowledgeable from people in halal and haram is Hasan, and most knowledgeable in rituals of hajj is Ata, and most knowledgeable in tafsir is Ikrima”. (Juzz fihi zikri hal Ikrima mawla ibn Abbas” by  Hafidh Munziri.p 23, #25).

Jabir ibn Ziyad Abu Shatha said: “He is most knowledgeable of people”. (Juzz fihi zikri hal Ikrima mawla ibn Abbas” by  Hafidh Munziri.p 24, #26).

Salam ibn Miskin said: “Ikrima is most knowledgeable of people in tafsir”. (Juzz fihi zikri hal Ikrima mawla ibn Abbas” by  Hafidh Munziri.p 24).

Sufayn as-Sawri said: “Take tafsir from Ikrima, Saeed ibn Jubayr, Mujahid and Dahhak”.(Juzz fihi zikri hal Ikrima mawla ibn Abbas” by  Hafidh Munziri.p 25, #29).

Shabe said: “No one remained more knowledgeable in book of Allah, than Ikrima”. (Juzz fihi zikri hal Ikrima mawla ibn Abbas” by  Hafidh Munziri.p 22, #19).

Ibn Hajar in “Taqrib” (#4673) said: Thiqat, steady, alim bi tafsir,and it’s not proved that he was accused in lie by ibn Umar, and it’s not proved innovation from him

Ibn Hibban mentioned him in “Thiqat” and said: “From scholars of his time in fiqh and tafsir”. (“Tahzib at-tahzib” 7/240)

Zirikli in “Alam” (4/244) said: “From most knowledgeable people in tafsir and magazi”.

 

XIV. Hadeeth Kisa has no relation to Hadeeth Thaqalayn and it weakens the Shi’ee position.

We often find that along with Hadeeth Thaqalayn Shias quote Hadeeth of al-Kisa(cloak) to prove who Ahlulbayt are, and they reject the categorical definition of Ahlulbayt mentioned in Thaqalayn, given by noble Sahabi Zaid bin Arqam(ra). They claim that, it goes against Hadeeth of cloak(Kisa). However the fact is that Shias are terribly mistaken, because Hadeeth al-Kisa has no relation with hadeeth Thaqalayn, therefore in no way does it effect the understanding of Zaid bin Arqam(ra).

Hadeeth al-Kisa(cloak) only shows that, who were those members of his household for whom Prophet(saw) supplicated, so that they be included in the favour of Allah which he intended for wives of Prophet(saw) mentioned in the verse of Tatheer(purification). In other words, Hadeeth al-Kisa only shows that, who were those members of Prophetic household for whom Prophet(saw) made dua(supplication), that they be included in verse of Tatheer(33:33).

Whereas, the Ahlulbayt mentioned in Hadeeth Thaqalayn are those, who were to be taken care of and whose responsibility was on the Muslims after Prophet(saw), like protecting them, offering them their rights and fulfilling the duties towards them. These were all those members of prophetic household(Ahlulbayt), on whom acceptance of charity was forbidden, not just four individuals from the family of Prophet(saw).

Therefore, the correct view is that, Hadeeth al-Kisa(cloak) has no relation with Hadeeth al-Thaqalayn.

Secondly, those Shia who keep quoting Hadeeth al-Kisa(cloak) inorder to prove who Ahlulbayt in Hadeeth Thaqalayn are, they aren’t aware that using Hadeeth al-Kisa actually weakens their position, because even though Sayyida Fatima(ra) is part of Ahlulbayt mentioned in Hadeeth al-Kisa, but as per authentic Shia hadeeth, Sayyida Fatima(ra) is NOT A PART of Ahlulbayt, mentioned in Hadeeth Thaqalayn.

We read in authentic Shia report that:

حدثنا محمد بن زياد بن جعفر الهمداني رضي الله عنه قال حدثنا علي بن إبراهيم بن هاشم عن أبيه عن محمد بن أبي عمير عن غياث بن إبراهيم عن الصادق جعفر بن محمد عن أبيه محمد بن علي عن أبيه علي بن الحسين عن أبيه الحسين بن علي )عليه السلام( قال سئل أمير المؤمنين )عليه السلام( عن معنى قول رسول الله (صلى الله عليه و آله) إني مخلف فيكم الثقلين كتاب الله و عترتي من العترة فقال أنا و الحسن و الحسين و الأئمة التسعة من ولد الحسين تاسعهم مهديهم و قائمهم لا يفارقون كتاب الله و لا يفارقهم حتى يردوا على رسول الله ص حوضه

Sheikh Sadooq (r.a) said Ahmed ibn Ziyad ibn Ja’far Al-Hamdani narrated from Alee ibn Ibraheem narrated from his father from Muhammad ibn Abi Umayr from Qayath Ibn Ibraheem from Al-Sadiq Ja’far ibn Muhammad (a.s) from his father Muhammad ibn Alee from his father Alee ibn Al-Hussain (a.s) from his father Al-Hussain (a.s) said: Amir al-Momineen Alee (a.s) was asked about the saying of the Prophet (saw): “I am leaving among you the two weighty things, the book of Allah and my Itrah(family).” He was asked who are the Itrah(family)? He replied: “Me, Al-Hassan, Al-Hussain and the nine imams from the progeny of Imam Hussain (a.s) the ninth one is the Mahdi and the Qa’im they do not separate the book of Allah neither is it separate from them until they meet the Prophet (saw) at lake-fount (Kawthar).” [Shia book: Hadeeth Al-Thaqalain Wa’ Maqamat Ahlulbayt. Pg. # 120.]

Infact, Shia website boldly declared that, Fatima(ra) is not a part of Ahlulbayt mentioned in Hadeeth Thaqalayn.

Shia website stated:

[Quote]

We proved through our authentic Hadiths that Sayyidah Fatimah is NOT part of the Ahl al-Bayt (عليهم السلام) mentioned in Hadith al-Thaqalayn or Hadith al-Khalifatayn because she is not a Khalifah!

(Screen Shot)

[End Quote]

Notice, in the Shia tradition, Fatima(ra) was not included in the Itrah(family) mentioned in Hadeeth Thaqalayn, only the Shia Imams were defined as Itrah, which clearly proves that Hadeeth Al-Kisa(cloak) has no relation with Hadeeth Thaqalayn, because in Hadeeth al-Kisa(cloak), Sayyida Fatima(ra) was included in Ahlulbayt. Secondly, in Hadeeth Kisa, there was no mention or even a hint for the inclusion of the nine other Imams of Twelver Shia or the four Imams of Waqifi(Sevener) Shia, or Imam of Zaidi Shia or Imam of Ismaili Shia. Thirdly, in none of the authentic version of Hadeeth al-Kisa(cloak), the word “Itra” is found, which again proves our point.

Hence, this shows that Hadeeth Al-Kisa(cloak) has no relation, with Hadeeth Thaqalayn. Those Shi’ites who use Hadeeth al-Kisa to define Ahlulbayt mentioned in hadeeth Thaqalayn are either ignorant of their own traditions and beliefs or they simply do this to fool the Sunnis. Since as per the correct Sunni understanding, Ahlulbayt mentioned in Thaqalayn, are all those relatives of Prophet(saw) upon whom acceptance of charity was forbidden, and this is also the view of Sahabi Zaid bin Arqam(ra).

Moreover, Shia even use some weak reports from Sunni books which state that Prophet(saw) used to recite verse (33:33) outside the house of Fatima(ra) for six to nine months, they claim that Prophet(saw) did this to make people understand who are Ahlulbayt, even though those reports are weak and the Shia connotations to it are irrational because the addressed ones in these reports were not Muslims in general but specifically family of Ali(ra), if it was to make people understand then the addressed ones would have been the Muslims in general. But even if for argument’s sake we consider the Shia connotation to those reports, then this further weakens their stance because a noble companion of Prophet(saw) even after months of Prophet’s preaching(supposedly) still believed that Ahlulbayt mentioned in Hadeeth Thaqalayn, were those relatives of Prophet(saw) on whom acceptance of charity was forbidden, not people who under the cloak. This leads to two conclusions; either Hadeeth Thaqalayn had no relation with Ahlulbayt mentioned in hadeeth al-Kisa, or that the Hadeeth Shias use are unreliable.

 

XV. Who must be followed to attain salvation?

As per Quran and authentic traditions of Prophet Muhammad(saw), the muslims are obliged to follow Prophet Muhammad(saw) and his companions(Sahaba) inorder to attain salvation.

 Quran:

(i). And whoever obeys Allah and the Messenger – those will be with the ones upon whom Allah has bestowed favor of the prophets, the steadfast affirmers of truth, the martyrs and the righteous. And excellent are those as companions.(Quran 4: 69).

(ii). And (as for) the foremost, the first of the Muhajirs and the Ansars, and those who followed them in goodness, Allah is well pleased with them and they are well pleased with Him, and He has prepared for them gardens beneath which rivers flow, to abide in them for ever; that is the mighty achievement.(Quran 9:100).

Comment: The first of Muhajirs even includes the four rightly guided Caliphs, that is Abu Bakr(ra), Umar bin Khattab(ra), Uthman bin Affan(ra) and Ali ibn Abu Talib(ra).

(iii). And whoever acts hostilely to the Messenger after that guidance has become manifest to him, and follows other than the way of the believers, We will turn him to that to which he has (himself) turned and make him enter hell; and it is an evil resort.(Quran 4:115).

Comment: When this verse was revealed on Prophet Muhammad(saw), the believers in his time were his Sahaba(companions), therefore Allah(swt) informs hypocrites/disbelievers that, following the way other than the way of companions(Sahaba) of Prophet Muhammad(saw), will lead them to hell-fire.

(iv). And when it is said to them: Believe as the people believe they say: Shall we believe as the fools believe? Now surely they themselves are the fools, but they do not know.(Quran 2:13).

Comment: In this verse of Quran we find that Allah(swt) says that, when people were told to believe like the companions(Sahaba) of Prophet Muhammad(saw) believed, the disbelievers/hypocrites mocked them, and in reality they themselves were the fools.

Authentic tradition of Prophet(saw):

Prophet Muhammed(saw) said: “Indeed the people of the Book before you split into seventy-two sects. And this nation will split into seventy-three sects, seventy-two are in the Fire and one in Paradise”. And in another narration, “All are in the Fire except one.” It was asked: Who is that one? He replied, “That which I and my Companions are upon.

[Related by at-Tirmidhi (5/62) and al-Haakim (1/128). It has been authenticated by al-Haafidh al-Iraaqee in Takhreejul-Ihyaa (3/199) and Sheikh Albani authenticated it in Saheeh at-Tirmizi 2641. He said it’s hasan(good)].

Similarly, we read in Shia book of Shiekh Sadooq:

Prophet (saw) said “The Ummah will be divided into 73 sects , all of them will go to hell except one”. He was asked “Which sect is that one”. Prophet (peace be upon him) said “That is the one on which I and my companions (ashaab) are”(Shia book, Ma’ani Al Akhbar, Page 370)

Note: Sahaba, encompasses the members of prophetic household such as wives of Prophet(saw), his daughters and Ali(ra), Hassan(ra), Hussain(ra), etc.

 

XVI. Quran and Sunnah of Prophet(saw) are the source adhering which Muslims would not go astray.

Allah Almighty have coupled submission to Him with submission to His Prophet(saw) in many noble verses of Quran that stimulate obedience to the Prophet(saw) and following his Sunnah.

The Prophet(saw) manifests the spirit of the Holy Quran through his ethics, action and his speech. This unison between the Prophet(saw) and the Holy Quran is one of the reason for why we must adhere to the “Sunnah”. The main pillar of religion and the first in rank being the Book of Allah(swt), and then following suit, the practical Sunnah.

Some deviant Muslims claim that we should only follow the Qur’an and neglect the Sunnah. This is very wrong, and it clearly shows that these people have not understood the Qur’an. It’s important to read and understand the Qur’an, and it is just as important to know how Muhammad(saw) lived according to it. The Qur’an is the Final Revelation from Allah, the Sunnah is the Ways of the Final Messenger of Allah(saw); So knowledge should be taken from both sources.

Below are some verses in the Qur’an, which prove the fact that we must obey and follow the Messenger Muhammad(saw) if we are real Muslims (i.e. submitters):

Say (O Muhammad): “If you (really) love Allah then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you of your sins. And Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.”(Quran 3:31)

…and whosoever obeys Allah and His Messenger (Muhammad) will be admitted to Gardens under which rivers flow (in Paradise), to abide therein, and that will be the great success.(Quran 4:13.)

When Allah says “Obey the Messenger” this does not only refer to people around the Messenger(saw) 1400 years ago, but rather to people who will come till the end of this world, because the Qur’an was sent to all of mankind until the Last Day.

Allah is telling all Muslims to obey Muhammad(saw). So the question here is “How do we obey and follow Muhammad(saw)?”. We follow him in his manners, actions, practices… etc. The Scholars of Islam have in fact dedicated their lives writing down these things [passed onto them from authentic chains leading to the Messenger(saw), through the Sahaba] and preaching them to us through volumes and volumes of authentic books.

The way to obey and follow Muhammad (saw) is by reading and learning what his Companions(Sahaba), that were alive in his time, recorded.  The Sahaba kept a careful account of his life, deeds, sayings and examples, and these have been gathered together as the Hadith. “Sunnah” is the name given to the ways of Muhammad(saw).  Most of what he has said or has done throughout his lifetime is recorded and memorised by his Companions(Sahaba). The Sunnah is that which Muhammad (saw) did, which he commanded, and which was not forbidden by him when done in his presence.

Therefore, obeying the Sunnah of Muhammad (saw) is actually a part of following the Qur’an. This is the reason we often find scholars repeating the following weak hadeeth in their talks and speeches, because even though the chain is weak, however the content of it is not questionable and the meaning of it is accepted.

رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏ “‏ تَرَكْتُ فِيكُمْ أَمْرَيْنِ لَنْ تَضِلُّوا مَا تَمَسَّكْتُمْ بِهِمَا كِتَابَ اللَّهِ وَسُنَّةَ نَبِيِّهِ ‏‏

Messenger of Allah, (saw) said, “I have left two matters with you. As long as you hold to them, you will not go the wrong way. They are the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Prophet.”

Proofs from Sunni Sources regarding following the Sunnah and guidance of Prophet Muhammad(saw).

(i). Jabir b. Abdullah said: When Allah’s Messenger(saw) delivered the sermon, his eyes became red, his voice rose. and his anger increased so that he was like one giving a warning against the enemy and saying:” The enemy has made a morning attack on you and in the evening too.” He would also say:” The last Hour and I have been sent like these two.” And he would join his forefinger and middle finger; and would further say:” The best of the speech is embodied in the Book of Allah, and the best of the guidance is the guidance given by Muhammad. And the most evil affairs are their innovations; and every innovation is error.” (Sahi muslim Bk 4, Number 1885).

(ii). It has been narrated on the authority of Hudhaifa b. al−Yaman who said: People used to ask the Messenger of Allah (saw) about the good times, but I used to ask him about bad times fearing lest they overtake me. I said: Messenger of Allah, we were in the midst of ignorance and evil, and then God brought us this good (time through Islam). Is there any bad time after this good one? He said: Yes. I asked: Will there be a good time again after that bad time? He said: Yes, but therein will be a hidden evil. I asked: What will be the evil hidden therein? He said: (That time will witness the rise of) the people who will adopt ways other than mine and seek guidance other than mine. You will know good points as well as bad points. I asked: Will there be a bad time after this good one? He said: Yes. (A time will come) when there will be people standing and inviting at the gates of Hell. Whoso responds to their call they will throw them into the fire.(Sahi muslim Bk 20, Number 4553).

Comment: This narration shows us that for all times, the guidance of Prophet(saw) should be used to attain salvation.

(iii). Narrated Al-‘Irbad bin Sariyah: “One day after the morning Salat, the Messenger of Allah (saw) exhorted us to the extent that the eyes wept and the hearts shuddered with fear. A man said: ‘Indeed this is a farewell exhortation. [So what] do you order us O Messenger of Allah?’ He said: ‘I order you to have Taqwa of Allah, and to listen and obey, even in the case of a Ethiopian slave. Indeed, whomever among you lives, he will see much difference. Beware of the newly invented matters, for indeed they are astray. Whoever among you sees that, then he must stick to my Sunnah and the Sunnah of the rightly guided Khulafa’, click to it with the molars.'”(Jami` at-Tirmidhi #2676; Grading: Sahih)

Proofs from Shia Sources regarding following the Sunnah and guidance of Prophet Muhammad(saw).

(i). Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from Muhammad ibn ‘Isa ibn ‘Ubayd from Yunus in a marfu’ manner from Ali ibn al Husayn(as), who has said the following: “The best deed in the sight of Allah is the one that is performed according to the Sunnah, even if it is of a small degree.” [Al-Kafi H 205, Ch. 22, h7]

(ii). A number of our people has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Khalid from his father from abu ’Isma‘il Ibrahim ibn Ishaq al-Azdi from abu ‘Uthman al-‘Abdi from Ja’far from his ancestors from Amir al-Mu’minin Ali (a.s.) who has said the following. “There are no words without action, thee are no words or actions without intention and there are no words, actions and intentions without learning the Sunnah. [Al-Kafi, H 205, Ch. 22, h 9]

(iii). Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from Ahmad ibn al-Nadr from ‘Amr ibn Shimr from Jabir from abu Ja’far (a.s.) who has said the following. “There is no one without excitement and calmness. Whoever’s calmness would lead him towards the Sunnah, he is rightly guided but if it would lead him towards innovations then he has gone astray.”[Al-Kafi, H 206, Ch. 22, h 10]

(iv). Ali ibn Muhammad has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Barqi from Ali ibn Hassa’n and Muhammad ibn Yahya from Salama ibn al-Khattab from Ali ibn Hassa’n from Musa ibn Bakr from Zurara ibn A‘yan from abu Ja’far (a.s.) who has said the following. “Whoever may transgress against the Sunnah, he must return to the Sunnah.” [Al-Kafi, H 207, Ch. 22, h 11]

(v). Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from al-Nawfali from al-Sakuni from abu ‘Abdallah from his ancestors (the Imams (a.s.) who have said the following. “Imam Ali (a.s.) said, ‘There are two kinds of Sunnah, (traditions). There is a Sunnah in obligations and following such Sunnah is guidance and its disregard is misguidance. There is a Sunnah, (tradition), in none obligatory issue. The following of this kind of Sunnah is a virtuous deed and its disregard for other matters is a sin.[Al-Kafi, H 208, Ch. 22, h 12].

(vi).

عن هشام بن الحكم أنه سمع أبا عبدالله عليه السلام يقول : لا تقبلوا علينا حديثا إلا ما وافق القرآن والسنة
It has been narrated from Hisham bin Al-Hakam that he heard Imam Jafar that he said : “Don’t accept from us except which is according to Quran and Sunnah.[Shia book, Tanqih al maqal , Vol. 1 , p. 174].

(vii).

عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ خَالِدٍ عَنْ إِسْمَاعِيلَ بْنِ مِهْرَانَ عَنْ سَيْفِ بْنِ عَمِيرَةَ عَنْ أَبِي الْمَغْرَاءِ عَنْ سَمَاعَةَ عَنْ أَبِي الْحَسَنِ مُوسَى ع قَالَ قُلْتُ لَهُ أَ كُلُّ شَيْ‏ءٍ فِي كِتَابِ اللَّهِ وَ سُنَّةِ نَبِيِّهِ ص أَوْ تَقُولُونَ فِيهِ قَالَ بَلْ كُلُّ شَيْ‏ءٍ فِي كِتَابِ اللَّهِ وَ سُنَّةِ نَبِيِّهِ ص
From Samaa`ah from Abee Al-Hasan Moosa(as) said, I said to him(as): “Is everything in the Book of Allaah and the Sunnah of his Prophet(saw), or do you have a say in it?” He(as) said: “Rather, everything is in the Book of Allaah and the Sunnah of his Prophet (saw)”.[Al-Kaafi, vol. 1, pg. 62, hadeeth # 10. Grading: Al-Majlisi said this hadeeth is Muwaththaq (Reliable) à Mir’aat Al-`Uqool, vol. 1, pg. 209].

(viii).

عدة من أصحابنا، عن أحمد بن محمد بن خالد، عن أبيه، عن النضر بن سويد، عن يحيى الحلبي، عن أيوب بن الحر قال: سمعت أبا عبدالله (عليه السلام) يقول

كل شئ مردود إلى الكتاب والسنة، وكل حديث لا يوافق كتاب الله فهو زخرف

A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Khalid from his father from al Nadr ibn Suwayd from Yahya al Halab from Ayyub ibn al Hurr who has said the following: “I heard abu ‘Abd Allah(as), saying, ‘Everything must be referred to the Holy Quran and the Sunnah. Any Hadith that does not agree with the Holy Quran is a useless statement.”‘.[Al-Kafi, H 201, Ch. 22, h3; Grading: Sahih as per Majlisi in Miratul uqul, vol 1, page 229]

(ix).
محمد بن يحيى، عن عبدالله بن محمد، عن علي بن الحكم، عن أبان بن عثمان عن عبدالله بن أبي يعفور، قال: وحدثني حسين بن أبي العلاء  أنه حضر ابن أبي يعفور في هذا المجلس قال: سألت أبا عبدالله (عليه السلام) عن اختلاف الحديث يرويه من نثق به ومنهم من لا تثق به؟ قال: إذا ورد عليكم حديث فوجدتم له شاهدا من كتاب الله أو من قول رسول الله (صلى الله عليه وآله)  وإلا فالذي جاء كم به أولى به
Muhammad b. Yahya, from Abdullah b. Muhammad, from Ali b. al Hakam, from Abaan b. Uthman, from Abdullah b. Abi Ya’foor, said: And told us Hussain b. Abi al ‘Ala who was present in this gathering with ibn Abi Ya’foor said: I asked Aba Abdullah(as) about difference in the hadith being narrated by whom we trust and some of those from whom we don’t trust? (Imam(as)) said: When you people come across hadith and you find support for it from testimony of book of Allah(swt) or from saying of Rasool Allah(saws) and otherwise then go with the first one (i.e. the one that was narrated by trust worthy narrator).[Al-Kafi , vol 1, page 69, hadith number 2;  the narration is authentic and has been included by allama mohib ud deen mosvi in al-mo’tabar min ahadeeth al-kafi.]

(x).

وقال عليه السلام:  من أخذ دينه من كتاب الله وسنة نبيه صلوات الله عليه وآله زالت الجبال قبل أن يزول ومن أخذ دينه من أفواه الرجال ردته الرجال
Imam(as) said : Who took his religion from the book of Allah and the sunnah of His Prophet(saw) , the mountains can displace from their location , but he can’t be removed (from his religion) and who took his religion on the hearsay of people, the other people can divert him (from his religion). [Al kafi, Vol. 1, p. 7].

(xi).

عن أحمد بن محمد بن خالد، عن إسماعيل بن مهران، عن أبي سعيد القماط وصالح بن سعيد، عن أبان بن تغلب، عن أبي جعفر (عليه السلام) أنه سئل عن مسألة فأجاب فيها، قال: فقال الرجل: إن الفقهاء لا يقولون هذا، فقال: يا ويحك (1) وهل رأيت فقيها قط؟! إن الفقيه حق الفقيه (2) الزاهد في الدنيا، الراغب في الآخرة، المتمسك بسنة النبي (صلى الله عليه وآله).
“A man asked a question from Imam abu Ja‘far (a.s.) who replied to it and then the man said, “The Fuqaha, scholars of law, do not say this.” The Imam then said, “It is a pity. Have you ever seen a Faqih, a scholar of law? The real Faqih, scholar of law is one who maintains restraint from the worldly matters, who is deeply interested in the life hereafter and holds firmly to the Sunnah, noble tradition of the holy prophet (s.a.)” [Al Kafi H 204, Ch. 22, h 8]

(xii).

عن ابن أبي عمير، عن بعض أصحابه قال: سمعت أبا عبدالله (عليه السلام) يقول: من خالف كتاب الله وسنة محمد (صلى الله عليه وآله) فقد كفر
It is narrated through the same chain of narrators from ibn abu ‘Umayr from certain persons of his people who has said the following. “Abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) who has said, ‘Whoever disagrees with the book of Allah and the Sunnah of Prophet Muhammad (s.a.) he has certainly become a unbeliever.’” [Al Kafi H 202, Ch. 22, h 6]

(xiii).

عن أبي جعفر عن رسول  الله  أنه قال فإذا أتاكم الحديث عني فأعرضوه على  كتاب   الله  وسنتي، فما وافق  كتاب   الله   وسنتي  فخذوا به، وما خالف  كتاب   الله   وسنتي  فلا تأخذوا به
Imam Baqir narrates the saying of the Messenger of Allah [s] that he said : When any of my hadith reaches you, then present it on the book of Allah and my sunnah, and if it is according to the book of Allah and my sunnah, so take it, and if it is against the book of Allah and my sunnah, than don’t take it. [Ihtijaj Tibrisi Vol. 2 ,p. 246 ].

(xiv). Imam Ali(ra) said :
و لكـم عـليـنا العـمـل بكتاب الله تعالى و سيره رسول الله – صلى الله عليه و اله – و القيام بحقه و النعش لسنته
It is incumbent upon us to act upon the book of Allah Almighty and the seerah of the Messenger of Allah[saw] and to keep the haq(of His book) and to raise his Sunnah. [Nahjul Balagha, Vol. 1, p. 31]

(xv). Abul Hasan(as) said: The Messenger [salallahu alayhi wa salam] brought them what should be sufficient for them during his era, and what should be sufficient for them after him: The Book of Allah, and the Sunnah of His Prophet” [Al-Mahaasin of al-Barqi, vol.1, pages 421422 ]

Comment: Shia scholar Al-Barqi in his book al-Mahaasin, reports that the Messenger of Allah(saw) left behind the Book and his Sunnah.

(xvi). Ali(RA) stated :

[…Then Allah chose for Muhammad (saw) to meet Him, selected him for His own nearness, regarded him too dignified to remain in this world and decided to remove him from this place of trial. So He drew him towards Himself with honor. He (saw) left among you the same thing other Prophets left among their peoples, because Prophets do not leave them untended without a clear path and a standing ensign, namely the Book of your Creator clarifying its permission and prohibitions, its obligations and discretion its repealing injunctions and the repealed ones, its permissible matters and compulsory ones, its particulars and the general ones, its lessons and illustrations, its long and the short ones, its clear and obscure ones, detailing its abbreviations and clarifying its obscurities. In it there are some verses whose knowledge is obligatory and others whose ignorance by the people is permissible. It also contains what appears to be obligatory according to the Book but its repeal is signified by the Prophet’s action…](Nahjul Balagha, Sermon 1).

(xvii). Shaykh Scholar, Allama al-Majlisi in “Uyunul Hayat” (1/348) narrated:

Narrated Ali ibn Ibrahim with authentic chain, in his Tafseer commentary of verse “ O you who believe! do not forbid (yourselves) the good things which Allah has made lawful for you” from Abu Abdullah (alaihi salam): It was revealed about commander of faithful (alaihi salam), Bilal and Uthman ibn Maudhun. And commander of faithful (alaihi salam) promised that he would never sleep at night, as for Bilal, he promised that he never would eat during the day, as for Uthman ibn Maudhun he promised that he never would marry (meaning he would never have intercourse with wife). And wife of the Uthman ibn Maudhun entered upon Aisha, and she was beautiful woman. Aisha asked: Why I see you upset?…. His wife said: By Allah, my husband didn’t approached me from such and such time….. (when prophet sallalahu alaihi wa ala alihi wa sallam entered to Aisha, she said that to him) He went out, and called to congregational prayer. People gathered, and minbar was set, he praised Allah, then said: What happen with group which prohibited upon themselves pure things? HEAR, I AM SLEEPING AT NIGHTS, MARRY (WOMAN) AND EAT DURING THE DAYS. AND WHOEVER WOULD GO ASTRAY FROM MY SUNNAH IS NOT FROM ME.

We read in al-Bayan fi Tafseer al-Qur’an by Grand Ayatullah al-Khoe’i page 230:

وقد دلت الاخبار المتواترة على وجوب عرض الروايات على الكتاب والسنة وأن ما خالف الكتاب منها يجب طرحه ، وضربه على الجدار
[The Mutawatir narrations show the necessity of presenting the narration (of the Imams) on the Book (of Allah) and the Sunnah, and that whatever disagrees with the Qur’an must be discarded and slammed against the door.]

Therefore, in the light of these traditions we see that, to remain on guidance and to be protected from going astray adherence to the Quran and Sunnah is a must. If Ahl al-bayt adhere to both, then they have both the virtue of descent[from the Prophet] and the virtue of adherence(to the Quran and Sunnah), and deserve to be leaders of guidance whose example we follow, as Allah(swt) says:{And make us leaders of the Muttaqoon(the pious)}[Quran 25:74]. This means leaders who follow the example of those who came before us, and whose example will be followed by those who come after us. This is not limited to Ahlulbayt; rather it applies to all who adhere to the Quran and Sunnah. In the case of reports with weak and unreliable chains of narration, whose text was twisted by unreliable narrators, then the faulty text itself does not make sense either, and this is a further weakness.

 

XVII. The Munkar(denounced) version of Hadeeth Thaqalayn – The wording of Khalifatayn.

Prophet of Allah(saw) said: “I will leave among you two successors(Khalifatayn): the Book of Allah, a rope stretching between the heaven and the earth, and my ahlalbayt. Both shall never separate till they return to me at the pool”.”

Source: Jamia Al-Sageer. Vol. 1, Pg. # 482, H # 2457 – 2456.

Response:

This wording comes in the tradition of narrator Shareek from Rukain from Qasim bin Hassaan from Zaid bin Thaabit. It was related by Ibn Abi Shaibah in “al-Musannaf” (31679), Imam Ahmad in his Musnad (21578, 21654) and others.

Narrator Shareek was weak, especially when he opposes others. [See Taqreeb (1/417)] in Shia books al-Sadiq condemned him to hell and he is described as an “Enemy of the Shia”, his grandfather fought al-Husayn (ra)

And as for narrator Qaasim bin Hassan, then Dhahabi quotes from Bukhari that his hadith is Munkar and he was not known. [Meezan (3/369)]

When returning to Al-Albani’s takhreej of Kitab Al-Sunnah, we find the following comments:

حديث صحيح: وإسناده ضعيف لسوء حفظ شريك وهو ابن عبد الله القاضي. والقاسم بن حسان مجهول الحال… وإنما صححته لأن له شواهد تقويه

“The narration is authentic: The chain is WEAK due to the weak memory of Shareek the judge, who is the son of Abdullah, and Al-Qassim bin Hassan, who is anonymous(majhool) in status… but I authenticated it due to supplementary narrations that strengthen it.”

Al-Albani is correct, for this chain is without a doubt weak. Upon returning to Al-Silsila Al-Saheeha to check out his supplementary narrations, we found that they came from the paths of Jabir, Zaid bin Arqam, Abu Sa’eed Al-Khudari, and others. However, none of these narrations includes the wordings “Khalifatayn”.

In other words, what Al-Albani is implying that, the overall narration is authentic, but the wording of this narration is weak, since it comes through a weak path. It is not conceivable to accept such a wording when more authentic versions of the narration do not have this wording. Hence the wording of Khalifatayn is Munkar(denounced).

Similar goes with Shaykh Wasiullah Abbas. In Fadha’il Ahmad (2/747 hadith #1032) Wasiullah Abbas says Isnadahu hasan li ghairih(the chain is hasan due to other chains) then says Shareek is weak, but there are shawahid(witnesses) then, in the end he says, “and the hadith is saheeh, See  (#170). He says the same thing under (hadith #1403 2/988) he says that there are many shawahid and “see (170)”.

But when we go back to(#170) which Wasiullah Abbas asked us to see, we find the following:

تركت فيكم ما أن تمسكتم به فلن تضلوا كتاب الله وأهل بيتي

This witness is WITHOUT the word Khaleefatain, Just like Al-Albani even Wasiullah Abbas is implying that, the overall narration is authentic, but the wording of this narration is weak, since it comes through a weak path.

In fact this narration in its current form, is Munkar(denounced) based on the authentic version of al-Thaqalayn.

Interestingly, we know that Rasul-Allah(saw) said in one version of hadeeth Thaqalayn, “Fandhuru Kayfa Takhlufunani Feehima”, meaning “So be careful how you deal with these two”. Thus he made a Wasiyyah or he(saws) willed for us to be careful in how we succeed him in both of these issues, and this proves that it is us who shall be responsible for them and not the other way around. `

[Ali is reported to have said similarly in of Nahj-ul-Balagha regarding the Ansar, he said: “If the Government was intended for them there would not have been a will concerning them.” (Nahj-ul-Balagha Sermon 67) ]

Esteemed Shia scholar Sayyid Muhammad Shirazi in his sharh of Nahjul balagha says while commenting upon the above words:

فلو کان الانصار امراء، کان اللازم ان يوصيهم الرسول صلي الله عليه و آله و سلم بان يعطفوا علي الناس لا ان يوصي الرسول صلي الله عليه و آله و سلم بان يعطف عليهم
If the Ansar were to be the rulers, it was necessary that the Prophet (saws) should have made the will that they should treat the people kindly, rather than the Prophet (peace be upon him) making the will that the people should be kind to them. (Nahjul balagha, with Taleeq of Ayatullah Shirazi, p. 103)

What `Ali means, is that the Messenger(saw) did not intend for the Ansar to be in a position of government, and the proof is that he (saw) told the believers and willed for them to treat the Ansar with goodness, whereas if they were entitled for it then he (saw) would have told the Ansar to treat the rest of the believers well as they would be in position of power. Since Rasul-Allah (saw) told us to succeed him in taking care of his Ahlulbayt(household) then it is proven that the government(Khilafah) after him was not intended for them.

Therefore, the word “Khaleefah” in this tradition doesn’t indicate the successor of Prophet (saws) in any way. Qur’an cannot be a successor of the Prophet (saws) for it was in authority even during the lifetime of the Prophet(saws). In fact, the Messenger of Allah(saws) himself followed the Qur’an. Khaleefah here is simply something which has been left behind.

[“Truth has(now) arrived, and Falsehood perished: for Falsehood is (by its nature) bound to perish.” (Quran 17:81).]

3 thoughts on “Hadeeth Al-Thaqalayn(Two weighty Things) — The correct understanding and a Spot-on perspective of Sunnis.

  1. at-Thaqal means a heavy thing or heavy responsibility or a heavy burden. Just like it is said in Sahih Muslim:
    وَعَنْ اِبْنِ عَبَّاسٍ رَضِيَ اَللَّهُ عَنْهُمَا قَالَ: { بَعَثَنِي رَسُولُ اَللَّهِ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-فِي اَلثَّقَلِ, أَوْ قَالَ فِي اَلضَّعَفَةِ مِنْ جَمْعٍ بِلَيْلٍ .‏

    Ibn ‘Abbas (RAA) narrated, ‘The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) sent me at night from al-Muzdalifah (to Mina) with the Thaqal or the weak members of his family (women and children).’

    So here the Thaqal are the weak family members because they can’t defend themselves and as such are described as at-Thaqal ie a heavy responsibility for those who take care of them as they have to defend them in case of a suprise attack by the enemy.

    The word I would like to look at here is taraka (ترك) ie leaving something behind. This doesn’t usually mean that you are leaving something behind in the sense of being replaced by it, rather leaving something behind that you will not care for or attend to it or leave it unchanged. As it is said in the verse for example:
    قَالُوا يَا أَبَانَا إِنَّا ذَهَبْنَا نَسْتَبِقُ وَتَرَكْنَا يُوسُفَ عِندَ مَتَاعِنَا فَأَكَلَهُ الذِّئْبُ ۖ وَمَا أَنتَ بِمُؤْمِنٍ لَّنَا وَلَوْ كُنَّا صَادِقِينَ
    Sahih International
    They said, “O our father, indeed we went racing each other and left Joseph with our possessions, and a wolf ate him. But you would not believe us, even if we were truthful.”

    Here the brothers of Prophet Yusuf left him unattended, taraka as-salat means that someone neglects his prayer ie he doesnt pray anymore, a person who is matruk is someone who is abandoned.

    This is the reason at the end of hadeeth it says:
    فَانْظُرُوا كَيْفَ تَخْلُفُونِي فِيهِمَا ie “so look at how you will deal with them after me”

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s