Did Umar(RA) change the Adhan(call to prayer)?


Did Umar(RA) change the Adhan(call to prayer)?

In The Name of Allah, The Beneficent, The Merciful.

The Shi’ites accuse the Second of the Rightly Guided Caliphs – Umar bin Khattab(RA) – of changing the Adhan(Muslim call to prayer). The Shi’ites have two objections towards Umar(ra) ; First: Umar(ra) added “Tathweeb” in Fajr Adhan, meaning the wording “al-Salatu khayr min al-Nawm(prayer is better than sleep)” in Fajr Adhan. Second: Umar(ra) removed the wording “Haya ala Khair al-Amal” from Adhan. In this article we would be examining and answering the arguments of Shi’ites, in the following sections.

(I). Reliable reports about adding “prayer is better than sleep” in Fajr Adhan.

(II). High ranking Shia Scholar ibn al-Junayd allowed Tathweeb in Fajr Adhan.

(III). Answers to the Reports presented against Tathweeb in Fajr Adhan.

(IV). Didn’t Imam al-Shafi’i believe Tathweeb to be the part of Sunnah?

(V). Response to the view of Shaykh al-Albani that Tathweeb in the second Adhan is Bidah.

(VI). Did Umar(RA) remove the wording “Haya Ala Khair al-Amal” from the Adhan?

(VII). Ahlus-sunnah rejected the wording Haya ala khair al-amal in Adhan due to lack of evidence from Prophet(saws).

 

(I). Reliable reports about adding “prayer is better than sleep” in Fajr Adhan.

(a). Anas bin Malik(RA)

(1). It was narrated that Anas(RA) said: It is Sunnah for the muaddhin, after saying Hayya ‘ala al-falaah (come to prosperity), to say: “al-salaatu khayrun min al-nawm (prayer is better than sleep)” twice. [Sunan al-Kubra by al-Bayhaqi, vol 1, page 623, #1984: Chain is Sahih as per Imam Bayhaqi] ; [Sahih ibn Khuzaymah, vol 1, page 233, #386] ; [Talkhees al-Habeer, vol 1, page 361: Sahih as per Ibn Sakan] ; [Sunan al-Daraqutny, vol 1, page 536, #932] ;

Imam ibn Katheer stated: When a companion(Sahabi) of Prophet(saws) states, “its from Sunnah…” then its a Marfo’o Musnad[attributed to the Prophet] in the view of Majority of Muhaditheen. [Ikhtisar uloom al-hadeeth, page 132].

(b). Ibn Umar(RA)

(2). It was narrated that Ibn ‘Umar(RA) said: In the first adhan after the word al-falaah is Al-salaatu khayrun min al-nawm, al-salaatu khayrun min al-nawm (prayer is better than sleep, prayer is better than sleep). [Talkhees al-Habeer, vol 1, page 361: Isnad is Hasan as per Ibn Hajar] ; [Sharh Ma’ani al-Athaar, vol 1, page 177, #811] ; [Sunan al-Kubra by al-Bayhaqi, vol 1, page 623, #1986].

(3). Nafi narrated that ibn Umar(RA) use to say al-salaatu khayrun min al-nawm (prayer is better than sleep) in the Adhan. [Musannaf ibn Abi Shayba, vol 2, page 15, #2177: Isnad is Sahih as per Muhaqqiq Usamah bin Ibrahim]

(c). Bilal ibn Rabah(RA)

(4). Imran ibn Muslim said, that Suwayd bin Ghaflah ordered to say to muazin: “When it comes to haya alal falah, say: al-salaatu khayrun min al-nawm(prayer is better than sleep), that’s Adhan of Bilal [Musannaf ibn Abi Shayabah, vol 2, page 15, #2175: Isnad is Sahih as per Muhaqqiq Usamah bin Ibrahim].

(d). Abu Mahdhurah(RA) :

(5). [Two Chains]Ahmad bin al-Abbas al-Baghawi – Abbad bin al-waleed Abu Badr – al-Himani – Abu Bakr bin Ayyash – Abdul Aziz bin Rafe’e AND Ali – Haytham bin Khalid bin Yazeed – Abu Bakr bin Ayyash – Abdul Aziz bin Rafe’e – Abi Mahdhurah, that he said: “I was a boy, so I made Adhan to the Prophet (SAWS) during Fajr on the day of Hunayn, when I reached Come to success, he (SAWS) said: Follow it with: al-salaatu khayrun min al-nawm(Prayer is better than sleep).”[Sharh Ma’ani al-Athaar, vol 1, page 177, #810] ; [Sunan al-Daraqutny, vol 1, page 521-522, #898] : [Chain is Jayyid(good) as per Shaykh al-Albani in Al-Thamr al-Mustataab, page 131].

(6). [Isnad]Suwayd bin Nasr – Abdullah – Sufyan – Abi Jafar – Abi Salman – Abu Mahdhurah(RA) said: “I used to call the Adhan for the Messenger of Allah(SAWS) and in the first Adhan of Fajr I used to Say: ‘Hayya ‘ala al-falah, as-salatu khairun minan-nawm, as-salatu khairun minan-nawm, Allahu Akbar Allahu Akbar, la ilaha illallah (Come to prosperity, prayer is better than sleep, prayer is better than sleep, Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest, there is none worthy of worship except Allah).” [Sunan Nasai, vol 1, page 383, #648 : Shaykh Zubair Ali Za’ee graded it as Hasan] ; [Talkhees al-Habeer, vol 1, page 362 : Sahih as per Ibn Hazm]. Narrator Abu Salman al-Muazen in the chain is Maqbool. [Taqreeb al Tahdheeb, page 1155, #8200].

(7). [Isnad]Musaddad – Harith bin Ubayd – Mohammad bin Abdul Malik bin Abi Madhura – Father – Grand Father(Abu Mahdhurah) reported; I said; Messenger of Allah(SAWS), teach me the method of ADHAN (how to pronounce the call to prayer). He wiped my forehead (with his hand) and asked me to pronounce; Allah is most great. Allah is most great. Allah is most great. Allah is most great, raising your voice while saying them (these words). Then you must raise your voice in making the testimony: I testify that there is no god but Allah, I testify that there is no god but Allah; I testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, I testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah. Lowering your voice while saying them (these words). Then you must raise your voice in making the testimony: I testify that there is no god but Allah, I testify there is no god but Allah; I testify Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, I testify Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah. Come to prayer, come to prayer; come to salvation, come to salvation. If it is the morning prayer, you must pronounce; prayer is better than sleep, prayer is better than sleep, Allah is most great; there is no god but Allah. [Sunan Abi Dawood, vol 1, page 304-305, #500 ; Sahih][Chain is Maqbool as per Al-Albani in al-Thamr page 126] ; (Narrator Mohammad bin Abdul Malik bin Abi Mahdhurah is maqbool(acceptable) as per Ibn Hajar in Taqreeb al-Tahdheeb page 873, #6140] and Narrator Harith bin Ubayd is saduq yukhti(truthful but makes mistakes) as per Ibn Hajar in Taqreeb al-Tahdheeb page 212, #1040).

(8). [Isnad]Hasan bin Ali – Abu Asim AND Abdur-Razzaq – Ibn Juraij – Uthman ibn Sa’ib – his father AND Umm Abdul Malik bin Abi Mahdhurah – Abu Mahdhurah also narrated this tradition from the Prophet(SAWS). This version has the additional wordings. The phrases “prayer is better than sleep, prayer is better than sleep” are to be pronounced in the first ADHAN (i.e., not in Iqamah) of the morning prayer. [Sunan Abi Dawood, vol 1, page 306-307, #501 : Hasan as per Zubair Ali Za’ee]. [Sahih Ibn Khuzaimah vol 1, page 231 -233, #385] ; [Sunan al-Daraqutny, vol 1, page 517, #892] ; [an-Nawawi graded it as Hasan in Khulasa al-Ahkam, vol 1, page 285- 286, #810] ; [Chain is Maqbool as per Al-Albani in al-Thamr al-Mustataab page 125] ; (Narrator Uthman bin Sa’ib al-Jamhi is Maqbool(acceptable) as per Ibn Hajar in Taqreeb al-Tahdheeb, page 662, #4502) and Saduq Hasan al-hadeeth as per Zubair Ali Za’ee in al-hadeeth, #104, page 14) and (Narrator Sa’ib al-Jamhi is Maqbool(acceptable) as per Ibn Hajar in Taqreeb al-Tahdheeb, page 364, #2216 & Narrator Umm Abdul Malik bin Abi Mahdhurah is also Maqbool(acceptable) as per Ibn Hajar in Taqreeb al-Tahdheeb, page 1382, #8845 and she is in Mutabiat(support) of Sa’ib al-Jamhi].

As we can see that hadeeth (6),(7),(8) has different Maqbool narrators in the chain, and they support hadeeth(5), Thus the reliability of the report is further strengthened due to these Shawahid, as the Maqbool narrators in different chains back each other. In the beginning of Taqreeb al-Tahdheeb, Imam Ibn hajar clarified what does the term Maqbool means in his view.

Ibn hajar stated:
من ليس له من الحديث إلا القليل ، ولم يثبت فيه ما يترك حديثه من أجله ، وإليه الإشارة بلفظ : مقبول ، حيث يتابع ، وإلا فلين الحديث
The one who has no hadiths except for a few, and that it is not proven that anyone left his hadiths during his time and the term “Maqbool” is applied to him when backed by other narrations. If not, then he is weak in hadiths. [Taqreeb al-Tahdheeb, page 81].

(e). Shia Reports about adding “prayer is better than sleep” in Fajr Adhan.

(i). Imam Jafar(as) said: When you are in Fajr prayer say ‘Al-Salat Khayr Min Al-Nawm(prayer is better than sleep)’ after ‘Hayy Ala Khayr Al-Amal’ in Adhan but don’t say it in Iqama. Al-Salat Khayr Min Al-Nawm is only in Adhaan. [Wasail al-Shia, vol 5, page 427 ; Narrator Ahmad ibn Abi Nasr Bazanti is Thiqa(trustworthy). And he is from Ashaab al-Ijma.[Al-Mawsu’at ar-Rijaliyyah al-Muyassarah, page 55].

Comment: Some Shias might argue that Ahmad ibn Abi Nasr used to be a Waqifi Shia but later became a Twelver, but what should be noted is that he was a Trustworthy narrator and Waqifi Shias believed in Imamate of Ali(RA), Hasan(RA), Hussain(RA), Ali ibn Hussain(RAH), Mohammad Baqir(RAH) and Jafar as-Sadiq(RAH). So its irrational to assume that, a Thiqa Waqifi Shia would attribute something (supposedly) innovated by Umar to Imam Jafar as-sadiq. Moreover, it can’t even be argued that this report was said under Taqiyyah, because the report has the phrase “Hayy Ala Khayr Al-Amal” which wasn’t considered as a part of Adhan by Sunnis, hence it invalidates the Taqiyyah excuse.

(ii). Imam Abu Jafar(Al-Baqir) said: My father (Ali Ibn Al-Hussein -Zain Al-Abideen) used to call out inside his house: ‘Prayer is better than sleep’ (al-salaatu khayrun min al-nawm) You should not have a problem if you repeat that. [al-Istibsar, vol 1, page 308, #1146] ; [Wasail al-Shia, vol 5, page 427].

Comment: The narration says ‘inside his house’, so the Taqiyyah excuse won’t work here. Clearly, the tradition of al-baqir(rah) was meant to show that the practice was not part of taqiyah but something done habitually privately, in one’s own home.

(iii). Imam Abu Abdallah(Al-Sadiq) said: ‘The calling and the Tathweeb in Adhan is from the Sunnah.’ [al-Istibsar, vol 1, page 308, #1145].

Comment: Report (ii) and (iii) have weakness in their chains, however Akhbari Twelver Shia, consider these reports as authentic, but they explain these as a consequence of Taqiyyah.

Shia Grand Ayatullah al-Sayyid Muhsin al-Amin stated:

The Akhbaris claimed that all of the reports in the Four Books(al-Kafi, Man la Yahduruh al-Faqih, al-Tahdhib and al-Istibsar) are Sahih. [A’yan al-Shia, vol 3, page 223].

Shia Ayatullah Muhammad Baqir al-Irawani stated:

According to Akhbari view, all the reports in the Four Books are Sahih and it is necessary to practice upon them. al-Hurr al-Amili in his Wasa’il, has gathered the evidences indicating that—meaning, the authenticity of whatever is in the Four Books—and they are twenty two evidences. [Durus Tamhidiyya fi al-Qawa`id al-Rijaliyya, page 48].

 

(II). High ranking Shia Scholar ibn al-Junayd allowed Tathweeb in Fajr Adhan.

Shia Scholar Shaheed Awwal – Muhammad bin Jamaluddin al-Amili stated:

Ibn Junaid held the view that there was no problem in adding Tathweeb in Adhan of Fajr specifically and repeating it. [Dhikra al-Shiah fi Ahkam al-Shariah, vol 3, page 201].

Shia Scholar Muḥammad bin Aḥmad bin al-Junayd al-Iskafi wasn’t an ordinary Shia Scholar. He was an esteemed Shia Scholar, the teacher of authoritative classical Shia Scholars such as Shaykh al-Mufid, Shaykh al-Najashi, Shaykh al-Tusi, etc.

Shia Shaykh al-Najashi stated:

Muḥammad bin Aḥmad bin al-Junayd al-Iskafi is respectful, reliable and of a great position among our scholars. [Rijal al-Najashi, page385, #1047].

Shia Grand Ayatullah Sayyid Mahdi Bahr al-Ulum stated:

“Ibn al-Junayd was a prominent early scholar of Imamiyyah, and very astute and great in jurisprudence, Arabic literature and writing. He was a scholar of theology, hadith, jurisprudence, literature, and wrote in jurisprudence, theology, principles of jurisprudence, literature, style of writing, and other fields”. [Fawaid al-Rijaliyyah, vol 3, page 205-206].

So, we see that prominent Shia Scholar, held the opinion that Tathweeb can be added in Adhan of Fajr. If tathweeb was an innovation of Umar(ra), then Ibn al-Junayd wouldn’t have allowed it in the Adhan.

 

(III). Answers to the Reports presented against Tathweeb in Fajr Adhan.

Report #1

Yahya related to me from Malik that HE HEARD that the muadhdhin came to Umar ibn al-Khattab to call him to the subh prayer and found him sleeping, so he said, “Prayer is better than sleep,” and Umar ordered him to put that in the adhan for subh. [Muwatta Malik, Book 3, Hadeeth Number 3.1.8]

Answer:

This report is unauthentic because Imam Malik does not say who told him about this incident. The source from where Malik heard that or who informed him is unknown. Infact it’s Munkar(denounced) report because it goes against authentic and reliable reports.

(a). Imam al-Qurtubi stated:

“And as for Malik’s statement in Muwatta …., I do not know that this was ever reported from ‘Omar through a chain that is credible and known to be authentic.” [Jami al-ahkam al-Quran vol 8, page 66- 67].

(b). Shaykh Zubair Ali Za’ee stated:

This report in Muawatta Malik is report in passive form without a chain and chain-less reports are rejected. [al-Hadeeth #104, page 16].

(c). Allamah Muhammad al-Zarqani al-Maliki stated:

This narration was reported by al-Daraqutni in his Sunan, with his chain to the Musannaf of Waki, from al-Umari, from Nafi, from ibn Umar, from Umar. And he reported it also from Suffiyan, from Muhammad bin `Ajalan, from Nafi`, from ibn `Umar, from `Umar, that he told his Mu’adhin: “When you reach ‘Come to success’ during Fajr, then say: Prayer is better than sleep, prayer is better than sleep.”

I do not know that this was narrated from `Umar in any authentic way, it was only reported by ibn abi Shaybah from the Hadith of Hisham ibn `Urwah, from a man called Isma’eel and I do not know who he is.

And Tathweeb is established in the Adhan of Bilal, and ibn abi Mahdhurah when they would do it in the morning prayers with the Prophet(SAWS).

The meaning of this narration here, is that this expression must be announced only in the Adhan of the morning, not like the Mu’adhin did it, he (`Umar) disliked that there would be a different call on the door of the leader, as some leaders would later do. Otherwise, Tathweeb is popular among the scholars and laypeople, and it cannot be that `Umar (ra) did not know of what the Prophet (SAWS) had ordered his two Mu’adhins, Bilal in Madinah and Abu Mahdhurah in Makkah.

This was also an explanation by al-Baji, who said that it is possible that Umar refused that the Mu’adhin would use an expression from the expressions of Adhan outside of it, so he ordered him to keep it within the Adhan.

It has been narrated by ibn Majah, from the route of ibn al-Musayyib, from Bilal, that he came to the Prophet (SAWS) to make Adhan for him in Fajr, so they told him “He is asleep.” he said: Prayer is better than sleep, twice. So it was accepted in the Adhan of Fajr and it remained that way.

Baqi ibn Makhlad narrated, from abi Mahdhurah, that he said:

“I was a boy, so I made Adhan to the Prophet (SAWS) during Fajr on the day of Hunayn, when I reached Come to success, he (SAWS) said: Follow it with: Prayer is better than sleep.”

Malik said in Mukhtasar ibn Sha`ban: A Mu’adhin must not leave the saying “Prayer is better than sleep” in the morning call whether he is travelling or not. However, if one made this call in his village, in a secluded or isolated place (where no one can hear him), then it is allowed for him to leave it but it is preferable if he did not leave it.

Malik from his uncle abu Suhayl ibn Malik, from his father Malik bin `Amir al-Asbahi, that he said: Since I first became aware, the only matter that they did -The Sahaba- and still remains unchanged is the call to prayer, it remained as it was and no change came to it, as opposed to the prayer because it was delayed from its rightful times, and change crept into many of the actions, a lot from enjoining what is good and forbidding what is evil is gone even if the people knew them, as al-Baji said.

Ibn Abdul-Barr said: “Adhan did not change from how it first was.”

Ata’ said: “I do not know that the Adhan of today differs from their Adhan in the past, even though many things are different today than they were during the time of the four Caliphs.”

[Source: Sharh al-Zarqani `ala Muwatta’ al-Imam Malik vol 1, page 217-218].

 

Report #2

We read in Musnaf Abdulrazaq:

عبد الرزاق عن ابن جريج قال : أخبرني عمر بن حفص أن سعدا أول من قال : الصلاة خير من النوم في خلافة عمر… فقال : بدعة ثم تركه ، وإن بلالا لم يؤذن لعمر.

Umar bin Hafs said: ‘Saad was the first one who said ‘Prayer is better than sleep’ during the reign of Umar… he (Umar) said: ‘It is an innovation (bidda)’ and then he abandoned it and Bilal never performed Adhan for Umar’.
Musanaf Abdulrazaq, Volume 1 page 474 Tradition 1829

Answer:

The chain is disconnected. Umar bin Hafs died in the year 222 AH. There is no information of the source from where he got this information, as the reign of Umar(ra) ended in 23 AH.. [Siyar alam al-nubala vol 10, page 639 , #223].

Moreover, it goes against the reliable report which says that, it was Adhan of Bilal to say al-Salaatu khairun min al-nawm.

Imran ibn Muslim said, that Suwayd bin Ghaflah ordered to say to muazin: “When it comes to haya alal falah, say: al-salaatu khayrun min al-nawm(prayer is better than sleep), that’s Adhan of Bilal. [Musannaf ibn Abi Shayabah, vol 2, page 15, #2175: Isnad is Sahih as per Muhaqqiq Usamah bin Ibrahim].

Hence the report in question is rejected as Munkar(denounced).

 

Report #3

حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدَةُ بْنُ سُلَيْمَانَ ، عَنْ هِشَامِ بْنِ عُرْوَةَ ، عَنْ رَجُلٍ يُقَالُ لَهُ : إِسْمَاعِيلُ ، قَالَ : جَاءَ الْمُؤَذِّنُ يُؤْذِن عُمَرَ بِصَلاَةِ الصُّبْحِ ، فَقَالَ : الصَّلاَةُ خَيْرٌ مِنَ النَّوْمِ ، فَأُعْجِبَ بِهِ عُمَرُ ، وَقَالَ لِلْمُؤَذِّنِ : أَقِرَّهَا فِي أَذَانِكَ.

Hisham ibn Urwa narrated from man, called Ismail: “Muazin came to Umar, to let him know about morning pray, and said to him: al-salaatu khayrun min al-nawm. Umar liked that, and ordered to put that in azan. [Musannaf ibn Abi Shayba, vol 2, page 15]

Answer:

The chain of this report is weak due to anonymity of narrator Ismail. He is Majhool.

Shaykh Zubair Ali Za’ee also declared Ismail as Majhool(anonymous). [al-hadeeth, #104, page 16]

Allamah Muhammad al-Zarqani stated, that Ismail is unknown. [Sharh al-Zarqani `ala Muwatta’ al-Imam Malik vol 1, page 217].

Muhaqqiq Shaykh Usamah bin Ibrahim, declared the chain to be disconnected(Munqati), [Musannaf ibn Abi Shayba, vol 2, page 15, #2176].

The report is even Munkar(denounced) because it goes against authentic and reliable reports.

 

Report #4

From Nafi`, from Abdullah ibn `Umar, from `Umar, that he told his Mu’adhin: “When you reach ‘Come to success’ during Fajr, then say: Prayer is better than sleep, prayer is better than sleep.” [Sunan al-Daraqutny, vol 1, page 537, #934].

Answer:

Shaykh Zubair Ali Za’ee stated:

This report only proves that, Umar(ra) inorder to teach his Mu’adhin the religious ruling(in relation to Fajr Adhan) ordered him to state those words, it doesn’t mean that he  added those words to the Adhaan. It was this simple issue which was blown out of proportion by the opponents and turned into a fiction. [al-hadeeth, #104, page 16].

Therefore this narration from Sunan al-Daraqutny in which Umar(ra) tells his Mu’adhin to announce Tathweeb in the Fajr Adhan, can easily be explained. Umar(ra) reminded his old Mu’adhin or informed his new Mu’adhin that reciting Tathweeb in Fajr is a Sunnah, so he must do it. It doesn’t say he invented it or added something that was not already there, moreover this is completely different than the weak(da’eef) narration of Muwatta’ Malik.

 

Report #5

The testimony of none other than the son of Umar regarding Tathweeb:

عبد الرزاق عن ابن عيينة عن ليث عن مجاهد قال : كنت مع ابن عمر فسمع رجلا يثوب في المسجد فقال : اخرج بنا من [ عند ] هذا المبتدع.

Mujahid said: ‘I was with Ibn Umar and then he heard a man reciting Tathweeb in the mosque, thus he (Ibn Umar) said: ‘Let us go away from this innovator (mubtadie)’
Musanaf Abdulrazaq, Volume 1 page 475 Tradition 1832.

Answer:

Chain is weak due to narrator layth bin Abu Sulaym.

Hafidh an-Nawawi said: The Scholars have agreed upon his weakness, the Idtiraab in his hadeeth, and the weakness of his memory. [Tahdhib al-Asma’ wa al-Lughat, vol 2, page 74-75].

Haafidh as-Suyooti said: There is a unanimous agreement on the weakness of Layth bin Abi Sulaym. [Al-Haawi lil Fataawa, vol 2, page 8]

Haafidh al-Iraaqi said: The Jumhoor has weakened him. [Takhreej ahadeeth al-Ihya, vol 1, page 478, #1817].

Imam Ibn hajar deemed Layth as weak. [Matalib al-aaliyah, vol 8, page 332-333].

Moreover, it is proven from a reliable report that ibn Umar(ra) himself used to say “al-salaatu khayrun min al-nawm” in Adhan.

Nafi narrated that ibn Umar(RA) use to say al-salaatu khayrun min al-nawm (prayer is better than sleep) in the Adhan. [Musannaf ibn Abi Shayba, vol 2, page 15, #2177: Isnad is Sahih as per Muhaqqiq Usamah bin Ibrahim].

However, it is possible that Tathweeb which Ibn Umar(ra) deemed as innovation was that which was said between Adhan and Iqamah, as the scholars explained.

Imam Abu Eisa al-Tirmidhi said:

The people of knowledge have differed over the interpretation of At-Tathwib. Some of them say that At-Tathwib is when one says “As-Salatu Khairummin An-Nawm, (prayer is better than sleep)” for the Adhan of Fajr. This is the saying of Ibn Al-Mubarak and Ahmad. Ishaq said something different about At-Tathwib, he said: “[The disliked Tathwib] is something that the people started after the Prophet; when the Mu’adh-dhin calls the Adhan and the people are slow in coming, so between the Adhan and the Iqamah he says: ‘Qad Qamatis-Salat, Hayya `Alasalat, Hayya `AlalFalah. (Prayer is ready, come to prayer, come to success.)” [He said:] This Tathwib, which Ishaq mentioned, is the one that the people of knowledge dislike, which they innovated after the Prophet. But Ibn Al-Mubarak and Ahmad explained that At-Tathwib is when the Mu’adh-dhin says: “As-Salatu Khairum minan-Nawm, (prayer is better than sleep)” for the Adhan of Fajr. And this is the correct saying, and it is called At-Tathawwub as well, and this is the one chosen by the people of knowledge, and it is their opinion. It has been reported from Abdullah bin Umar that he would say: “As-Salatu Khairum-minan-Nawm, (prayer is better than sleep)” for Fajr. It has been reported from Mujahid that he said: “I entered a Masjid with Abdullah bin Umar in which the Adhan was called, and we wanted to pray in it. Then the Mu’adh-dhin said the Tathwib. So Abdullah bin `Umar left the Masjid and said: ‘Let us leave the place of this innovator’ And he did not pray in it.” [He said:] Abdullah only disliked the Tathwib that the people invented later on. [Jami at-tirmidhi, vol 1, page 221-223, #198].

A similar opinion was held by Imam Jafar sadiq(rah) regarding Tathweeb between Adhan and Iqamah, as we find in authentic Shia Hadeeeth.

  عَنْ مُعَاوِيَةَ بْنِ وَهْبٍ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ اللَّهِ(ع)عَنِ التَّثْوِيبِ الَّذِي يَكُونُ بَيْنَ الْأَذَانِ وَ الْإِقَامَةِ فَقَالَ مَا نَعْرِفُهُ

Mu’awiyah ibn Wahab asked Imam as-Sadiq about the Tathweeb  between the Adhan and the Iqamah. He said: “It is unknown to us.” [Wasail al-Shia, vol 5, page 426 ; Al-Kafi, Volume 3 page 303 ; Shaykh Baqir Majlesi in Miraat al-Uqool vol 15, page 83 have declared it Sahih].

Or,

Probably the time when Ibn Umar(ra) heard Tathweeb wasn’t Fajr time, rather Zuhr or Asr time, due to which he left the mosque, as we find in the following report.

Mujahid reported: I was once with Ibn Umar, and a person(Muaddhin) performed the tathweeb for the Zuhr or for Asr. He said: Let us leave(this place) for this is an innovation [Sunan Abi Dawood, vol 1, page 335, #538 ; Hasan as per al-Albani and Zubair Ali Zaee].

 

Report #6

Tawoos’s testimony that Tathweeb didn’t exist during the time of Prophet (s)

We read the following testimony of one of the famed Tabayee namely Tawoos:

Hassan bin Muslim said: ‘Someone questioned Tawoos: ‘When was ‘Prayer is better than sleep’ was said?’ He replied: ‘This recitation did not exist in Adhan during the days of the Holy Prophet (s). During the reign of Abu Bakr, Bilal had heard a caller (Moazzin) recite this phrase, therefore he too included it in the Adhan. After the death of Abu Bakr, Umar had said that they should stop Bilal from practicing that innovation but later on Umar forgot it, hence it is still practiced”.
Kanz ul Ummal, Volume 8 page 367 Tradition 23251

Answer:

Firstly,  Tawus was born during end of Umar’s caliphate or during Uthman’s caliphate . [Siyar alam al-nubala vol 5, page 38-39, #13] ; [Tawus bin Kaysan Yamani, page 74].

So, Tawus didn’t witness the era of Prophet Muhammad(saws) or what occurred during Abu Bakr’s reign or what Umar said. Hence the source from where he received all this information is unknown. Also, it goes against reliable reports which show that the phrase “prayer is better than sleep” was added during the time of Prophet Muhammad(saws). Hence this report is rejected as Munkar(denounced).

Moreover, the Shias need to atleast be consistent in their argument. First they try to blame Umar(ra) for introducing “prayer is better than sleep” in fajr Adhan, while they are using a report which states Bilal(ra) introduced it hearing it from someone, and Umar(ra) was against it. Also, the content of the report itself is unreasonable, if supposedly Umar(ra) wanted to stop it, then it wasn’t something that one would forget, because Fajr Adhan is called out openly on a daily basis.

Also, Caliph Umar bin Abdul Aziz(rah) was a student of Tawoos and he was pro-tathweeb, as we find that his Muaddhin used to say al-salaatu khayrun min al-nawm(prayer is better than sleep) and no objection is reported from Umar ibn Abdul Aziz.

حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو بَكْرٍ قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا يَحْيَى بْنُ أَبِي بَكْرٍ قَالَ أَنَا عَلِيُّ بْنُ الْحَارِثِ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ مُسْلِمٍ قَالَ سَمِعْت مُؤَذِّنَ عُمَرَ بْنِ عَبْدِ الْعَزِيزِ يَقُولُ الصَّلَاةُ خَيْرٌ مِنْ النَّوْمِ

[Musannaf ibn Abi Shayba, vol 2, page 16, #2185]

Lastly, apart from the reliable Marfoo and Mawqoof reports which we presented in the beginning in support of Tathweeb in Fajr Adhan, there is even a strong Mursal report from a renowned Taba’ee named Sa’eed ibn Musayyib(rah), which states that “Prayer is better than sleep” in Fajr Adhaan was added during the lifetime of Prophet Muhammad(saws).

It was narrated from Sa’eed ibn Musayyib that Bilal came to the Prophet to call him for the Fajr prayer, and was told: “He is sleeping.” He said: “As-salatu khairum minan-nawm, As-salatu khairum minan-nawm (The prayer is better than sleep, the prayer is better than sleep). These words were approved of in the Adhan for the Fajr, and that is how it remained. [Sunan ibn Majah, vol 1, page 237, #716]. Similar report with another chain.[Musannaf ibn Abi Shayba, vol 2, page 15, #2179].

 

Report #7

حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو أُسَامَةَ ، عَنِ ابْنِ عَوْنٍ ، عَنْ مُحَمَّدٍ ، قَالَ : قَالَ : لَيْسَ مِنَ السُّنَّةِ أَنْ يَقُولَ فِي صَلاَةِ الْفَجْرِ : الصَّلاَةُ خَيْرٌ مِنَ النَّوْمِ.

From ibn Awn, that Muhammad (ibn Sirin) said: It’s not from sunnah to say al-salaatu khayrun min al-nawm in the adhan of fajr. [Musannaf ibn Abi Shayba, vol 2, page 15, #2178]

Answer:

The chain is weak due to tadlees of narrator Abu Usamah Hammad ibn Usamah, as he narrated it in /anana/ form via ibn Awn. It was narrated that Abu Usamah did a lot tadlees.(Mizan al-itidal #2235 vol 1, page 588).

Moreover, It goes against a reliable report narrated by Mohammad ibn Sireen from Anas bin Malik(ra), That saying prayer is better than sleep is from Sunnah.

Mohammad ibn Sireen narrated that Anas(RA) said: It is Sunnah for the muaddhin, after saying Hayya ‘ala al-falaah (come to prosperity), to say: “al-salaatu khayrun min al-nawm (prayer is better than sleep)” twice. [Sunan al-Kubra by al-Bayhaqi, vol 1, page 623, #1984: Chain is Sahih as per Imam Bayhaqi] ; [Sahih ibn Khuzaymah, vol 1, page 233, #386] ; [Talkhees al-Habeer, vol 1, page 361: Sahih as per Ibn Sakan]

Hence the report in question is Munkar(denounced).

 

Report #8

حَدَّثَنَا وَكِيعٌ ، عَنْ إِسْرَائِيلَ ، عَنْ حَكِيمِ بْنِ جُبَيْرٍ ، عَنْ عِمْرَانَ بْنِ أَبِي الْجَعْدِ ، عَنِ الأَسْوَدِ بْنِ يَزِيدَ ؛ أَنَّهُ سَمِعَ مُؤَذِّنًا يَقُولُ فِي الْفَجْرِ : الصَّلاَةُ خَيْرٌ مِنَ النَّوْمِ ، فَقَالَ : لاَ تَزِيدنَّ فِي الأَذَانِ مَا لَيْسَ مِنْهُ.

Imran ibn Ebil-Jad said that when Aswad ibn Yazid heard muaddhin saying al-salaatu khayrun min al-nawm in the adhan, he said: “Don’t add to adhan anything that is not from it”. [Musannaf ibn Abi Shayba, vol 2, page 16, #2183]

Answer:

Narrator Hakeem ibn Jubair in the chain was an extremely weak and unreliable Shia. Imam Ahmad declared him as: “Weak, munkar al-hadith”. Daraqutni said he’s Matrook(abandoned). [Mizan al-itidal #2215, vol 1, page 583].

Hence the report is Munkar(denounced).

 

Report #9

A report from Shia book:

كتاب النرسي…..ومنه: عن أبي الحسن عليه السلام قال: الصلاة خير من النوم بدعة بني أمية، وليس ذلك من أصل الاذان ولا بأس إذا أراد الرجل أن ينبه الناس للصلاة أن ينادي بذلك، ولا يجعله من أصل الاذان

The Book of (Zaid) al-Narsi…And from it: from Imam Abi al-Hasan al-Kazim(as) said: ‘Prayer is better than sleep’ is an innovation by the Bani Umaya, it is not a part of Adhan but there is no harm if a man wants to wake up the people by saying it, but without including it to the Adhan. [Bihar al-Anwar, Volume 81 page 173].

Answer:

This report is from the book of Zaid Al-Narsi, he is Majhool, as per Shia Rijalists. Hence the report is weak.

Zaid Al-Narsi –  Majhool(anonymous). [Al-Mufid min Mo’jam Rijal Al-Hadith, page 239].

Even the text of this weak report shows the dilemma and inconsistency of Shi’ites. They aren’t even sure who to blame for Tathweeb in Adhan. Sometimes, they try to blame Umar(ra) and here they put the blame on Bani Umayyah. They should atleast make up their mind, who do they want to accuse for the (supposed) innovation of Tathweeb in Adhan.

 

(IV). Didn’t Imam al-Shafi’i believe Tathweeb to be the part of Sunnah?

Argument

Kitab al-Umm, page 104 Shafaei stated:

ولا أحب التثويب في الصبح ولا غيرها لان أبا محذورة لم يحك عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم أنه امر بالتثويب فأكره الزيادة في الاذان وأكره التثويب بعده

“I dislike Tathweeb in morning (Adhan) and so the other (Adhan) because Aba Mahdhura didn’t narrate from the prophet (s) that He (s) ordered to recite Tathweeb, thus I dislike adding it to Adhan and dislike Tathweeb after it”.

Ikhtelaf al-Aema al-Ulema by Ibn Hubayra, Volume 1 page 93:

ثم اختلفوا فيه فقال ابو حنيفة ومالك واحمد التثويب سنة وعن الشافعي قولان كمذهب الجماعة والجديد لا يثوب

Then they disagreed about it, Abu Hanifa, Malik and Ahmed said that Tathweeb is Sunnah, while Shafiyee has two opinions one is like the others while his latest opinion is of rejecting Tathweeb.

Answer:

(a). Shaykh Amjad Rasheed an expert in Shafi’i School was asked:

السؤال: هل قال الإمام الشافعي بكراهة زيادة “الصلاة خير من النوم” في أذان الفجر في “الأم” ؟ ما هو معتمد المذهب ؟ هل خالفوا إمامهم ؟ الجواب : قال في “المجموع” :” وأما التثويبُ في الصبح ففيه طريقان ؛ الصحيحُ الذي قطع به المصنفُ والجمهورُ أنه مسنون قطعاً ؛ لحديث أبي محذورة . والطريق الثاني ؛ فيه قولان : أحدهما : هذا وهو القديم , ونقله القاضي أبو الطيب وصاحبُ “الشامل” عن نص الشافعي في البويطي فيكون منصوصاً في القديم والجديد ، ونقله صاحب “التتمة” عن نص الشافعي رحمه الله في عامة كتبه . والثاني وهو الجديد : أنه يكره “. اهـ والذي في “الأم” هو من كلام الإمام المزني نقل فيه القولين القديم وهو أنه سنة والجديد وهو أنه مكروه . لكن قد علمت من عبارة “المجموع” أن للإمام رضي الله عنه ورحمه قولين في الجديد ؛ الأول : أنه مكروه ، والثاني : أنه سنة ، بل القول الثاني منقولٌ عن عامة كتب الإمام ولذا رجحه أئمة المذهب ، وبه يظهر أنهم لم يخالفوا إمامهم لكنهم رجوا له قولاً على قول هو قائلهما ، وما رجحوا هو ما نص عليه في عامة كتبه

Did Imam al-Shafi`i hold that it is disliked to add “Al-Salatu khayrun min al-nawm” in the adhan of fajr in the Umm? What is the reliable position of the school? Did they contradiction their imam?

Shaykh Amjad Rasheed Answered:

Imam Nawawi al-Shafi’ee said in the Majmu:

“As for the tathwib (saying of Al-Salatu khayrun min al-nawm) in the morning [adhan], [our school] approaches it in two ways.

The correct approach that was asserted by the author [i.e. al-Shirazi in the Muhadhdhab] and the majority of scholars is that it is definitely sunna [without any disagreement] because of the hadith of Abu Mahdhurah.

The second approach is that there are two positions regarding it [in the school]. The first position is the same as the one mentioned above [i.e., that it is sunna]. This is the position of the old school, and has been related by the judge Abu Tayyib and the author of “al-Shamil” from the text of al-Shafi`i in al-Buwaiti, which means that it has been found in the texts of the old school as well as the new school. It has also been related by the author of al-Tatimmah, from the text of al-Shafi’i, may Allah have mercy on him, from most of his books. The second position [of the second approach] is the position of the new school, which is that that it is disliked.” [al-Majmu’ sharh al-Muhadhdhab, vol 3, page 101].

As for what is said in Kitab al-Umm, which is from the words of Imam al-Muzani, two rulings were related about it:

(1) the position of the old school, which is that it is sunna, and

(2) the position of the new school, which is that it is makruh(disliked).

However, you can see from the expression used in the Majmu that the Imam, may Allah be well pleased with him, has two opinions in the new school alone. The first is that it is makruh and the second is that it is sunnah.

Actually, the second ruling [s. that it is sunna] has been related to us from the generality of the books of the Imam, so for that reason, the Imams of the madhhab have preferred it.

It is therefore clear that [the imams of the school] did not contravene their Imam, rather they gave weight to one of his positions over another one of his positions, and the position that they preferred is the position that appears in most of his books.

[Source: Islamqa.org] [Screenshot: Imam Shafi’i view on Tathwib].

(b). Imam al-Nawawi al-Shafi’i stated:

We have mentioned that our(Shafi’ee) Madhab is that it is a Sunnah in the Adhan of the morning to make the Tathweeb. From those who have mentioned practicing it are `Umar bin al-Khattab and his son, and al-Hasan al-Basri, and ibn Sireen, and al-Zuhri, and Malik, and al-Thawri, and Ahmad, and Ishaq, and abu Thawr, and Dawud … and others.] [al-Majmu’ sharh al-Muhadhdhab, vol 3, page 102].

(c). Abu Muhammad Shamsul-Haqq Tayib Al-Azeemabadi in Awn Al Ma’bud it states:

الشافعي ومالك وأحمد وجمهور العلماء إلى أن الترجيع في الأذان ثابت لهذا الحديث وهو حديث صحيح

“And Shafi, Malik and Ahmad and the Majority of other scholars state that Tathwib is in the call to prayer(Adhan), it is established from authentic hadith.” [Awn al-Ma’bud Sharh Sunan Abi Dawud, vol 1, page 131].

(d). Muhammad al-Zarqani al-Maliki stated:

Malik from his uncle abu Suhayl ibn Malik, from his father Malik bin Amir al-Asbahi, that he said: Since I first became aware, the only matter that they did -The Sahaba- and still remains unchanged is the call to prayer, it remained as it was and no change came to it, as opposed to the prayer because it was delayed from its rightful times, and change crept into many of the actions, a lot from enjoining what is good and forbidding what is evil is gone even if the people knew them, as al-Baji said.

Ibn Abdul-Barr said: “Adhan did not change from how it first was.”

Ata’ said: “I do not know that the Adhan of today differs from their Adhan in the past, even though many things are different today than they were during the time of the four Caliphs.” [Sharh al-Zarqani ala Muwatta’ al-Imam Malik vol.1, page 218].

(e). Abdul-Rahman al-Jaziri the author of “al-Fiqh ala al-Madhahib al-Arba’ah” stated:

In the dawn prayer following the phrase, “Come to salvation {hayya ‘ala al-falah)!” it is recommended that the muaddhin add, “Prayer is better than sleep! Prayer is better than sleep (al-salatu khayrun min al-nawm)!” All four schools agree that it is undesirable to leave this addition out. [Al-Fiqh ala Al-Madhahib Al-Arba’ah, page 406].

 

(V). Response to the view of Shaykh al-Albani that Tathweeb in the second Adhan is Bidah.

Argument

Nasiruddin al-Albani in his book Tamam al-Mina,  page 147:

ومما سبق يتبين ان جعل التثويب في الأذان الثاني بدعة مخالفة للسنة وتزداد المخالفة حين يعرضون عن الأذان الأول بالكلية ويصرون على التثويب في الثاني

It’s is clarified that to insert Tathweeb in the second Adhan is an innovation (bida) and opposing the Sunnah, and the opposition increase sharply when they totally ignore the first Adhan and insist to practice Tathweeb in the second Adhan.

Response:

Firstly, the view of Shaykh al-Albani isn’t in the favour of Shias, because Shaykh al-Albani was the in favour of Tathweeb in first Adhan, he even authenticated reports regarding Tathweeb in Adhan, while the Shias reject Tathweeb in any of the Adhan.

Secondly, the view of Shaykh al-Albani was based on a misunderstanding. Therefore, Shaykh Zubair Ali Za’ee refuted the misunderstanding of Shaykh Nasir uddin al-Albani in following words.

Shaykh Zubair Ali Za’ee stated:

There are two call of prayers(Adhan) for the Morning: One is the Adhan of Fajr in Morning and other is its Iqamah. Prophet Muhammad(saws) in the following hadeeth (بَيْنَ كُلِّ أَذَانَيْنِ) have deemed Iqamah to be Adhan as well.

حَدَّثَنَا إِسْحَاقُ الْوَاسِطِيُّ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا خَالِدٌ، عَنِ الْجُرَيْرِيِّ، عَنِ ابْنِ بُرَيْدَةَ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ مُغَفَّلٍ الْمُزَنِيِّ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏ “‏ بَيْنَ كُلِّ أَذَانَيْنِ صَلاَةٌ ـ ثَلاَثًا ـ لِمَنْ شَاءَ ‏”‏‏.‏

Allah’s Messenger (saws) said thrice, “There is a prayer between the two Adhans (Adhan and Iqama),” and added, “For the one who wants to pray.” [Sahih al-Bukhari vol 1, page 363, #624].

From these two Adhan(Fajr Adhan and Iqamah) the wordings of “prayer is better than sleep” is proven only from the First Adhan not the Second.

Shaykh al-Albani(rah) suffered a weird mistake in this matter, he mistook the Adhan of Night(Suhoor or Tahajjud) as the Adhan of the Morning. And claimed that, “the wordings ‘prayer is better than sleep’ shouldn’t be called out in the Fajr Adhan, rather these should be said in the Night Adhan”. However, it was his mistake to consider the Night Adhan as the Morning Adhan.

It is reported from Abdullah ibn Umar(ra) and Ayesha(ra) that, The Prophet(saws) said, “Bilal pronounces the Adhan at NIGHT, so eat and drink (Suhur) till Ibn Um Maktum pronounces the Adhan. [Sahih al-Bukhari vol 1, page 362-363, #622 & #623; Chapter: The Adhan before Al-Fajr].

In this Hadeeth, for the Adhan of Tahajjud or Suhoor in Ramadhan there is clarity that this is Night Adhan. Therefore, Shaykh al-Albani deeming this to be Fajr Adhan was a big mistake. The reason behind this mistake is that, he didn’t take the understanding of this hadeeth from Salaf al-Saliheen, rather from a very late Scholar of Yemen. The Jurisprudence of the Hadeeth that was presented by Hafiz Ibn Khuzaimah, Hafiz Bayhaqi, Allamah Tahawi and others, closing the eyes from it and adopting the view of Late Scholars who came after the era of Khair al-Quroon(best of generations) and the era of Tadween al-Hadeeth(compilation of Hadeeth) is absolutely incorrect. And most likely for this reason Shaykh Ameen Ullah Peshawari stated: “The view of Shaykh al-Albani in this matter is Weak(Da’eef)”.[Fatawa al-Deen al-Khalis vol 3, page 225]

[Source: al-hadeeth, #104, page 15-16].

 

(VI). Did Umar(RA) remove the wording “Haya Ala Khair al-Amal” from the Adhan?

Argument

Qaushijee states in Sharh Tajreed page 408:

(Umar said): ‘O people, three things were there during the reign of Allah’s messenger and I forbid them and will punish for practicing them and they are the Mut’ah of women, the Mut’ah of hajj and Haya alaa khayri al-amal’

Imam Saaduddin Taftazani states in Sharh Maqasid, Volume 3 page 512:

“It has been narrated that Umar said: ‘Three things existed during the time of Allah’s Messenger, I forbid and make them Haram, these are Mut’ah al-Nisa, Mut’ah al-Hajj and “Hay ala Khayr al-Amal”.
Sharh Maqasid, Volume 3 page 512

Answer:

These reports are without any chain of transmission, hence rejected as per the standard principle of Hadeeth Science.

Ameer al-Momineen fi’l-hadeeth Abdullah ibn al-Mubarak, states:

“Al-Isnad (the chain of transmission) is a necessary part of deen(religion). If it were not for the Isnad anyone would say whatever he wishes to say.” [Muslim in al-Muqaddima to his as-Sahih, vol. 1, page 55].

Al-Imam ash-Shafi‘i said:

“The one who accepts the knowledge from somebody without the sanad(chain of transmission) is like a person carrying a bundle of wood with a snake in it and he does not know. It may bite him (anytime).”[al-Bayhaqi, al-Madkhal ila as-Sunan al-Kubra, page 211]

Imam Ahmad ibn Taymiyyah stated:

“The isnad(chain of transmission) is one of the exclusive virtuous characteristics and Allah’s great blessings on this Ummah. It is also a great peculiarity of the deen(religion) of Islam and it is a salient identity of Ahl as-Sunnah. The Rafidah did not pay great attention to isnad, because they confirmed only such as accorded to their desires and the sign of a false isnad (in their eyes) was opposing their desires.” [Minhaj as-sunnah vol 7, page 37].

Moreover, the text of the report is obviously fabricated, because it is an established fact, proven from reliable reports that, it was Prophet(saws) who forbid and made haram Mutah al-Nisa. And secondly, Umar didn’t make Mutah al-Hajj Haram. So the chainless report is a clear fabrication, hence rejected.

Imam al-Bayhaqi al-Shafi’i said regarding the wording “Haya ala Khair al-Amal” in Adhan:

وهذه اللفظة لم تثبت عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فيما علَّم بلالاً وأبا محذورة ونحن نكره الزيادة فيه

These words are not proven from Prophet(SAWS), these weren’t taught to Bilal and Abu Mahdhurah, and we reject these additional wordings in it. [Sunan al-Kubra by al-Bayhaqi, vol 1, page 625].

The fact is that, as Imam Bayhaqi declared, there isn’t any reliable report from Prophet Muhammad(saws) where the words “Hay ala Khayr al-Amal” were mention as part of Adhan. This can be witnessed in some reliable reports where Adhan was mentioned without this wording.

Adhan in Authentic Reports from Prophet Muhammad(SAWS) is without the wording “Haya ala Khair al-Amal”.

(a). Abu Mahdhura said that the Messenger of Allah(SAWS) taught him Adhan like this: Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest; I testify that there is no god but Allah, I testify that there is no god but Allah; I testify that Muhammad Is the Messenger of Allah, I testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, and it should be again repeated: I testify that there is no god but Allah, I testify that there is no god but Allah; I testify that Muhammad Is the Messenger of Allah, I testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah. Come to the prayer (twice). Come to success (twice). Ishaq added: Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest; there Is no god but Allah. [Sahih Muslim, vol 1, page 485-486, #379].

قَالَ أَبُو عِيسَى حَدِيثُ أَبِي مَحْذُورَةَ فِي الأَذَانِ حَدِيثٌ صَحِيحٌ ‏.‏ وَقَدْ رُوِيَ عَنْهُ مِنْ غَيْرِ وَجْهٍ ‏.‏ وَعَلَيْهِ الْعَمَلُ بِمَكَّةَ وَهُوَ قَوْلُ الشَّافِعِيِّ

Imam Abu Eisa al-Tirmidhi said: The Hadith of Abu Mahdhurah about the Adhãn is a Sahih Hadith, and it has been reported from him by more than one route. This is acted upon in Makkah, and it is the view of  Imam al-Shafi’i. [Jami at-Tirmidhi, vol 1, page 216].

(b). Abd Allah bin Zaid(RA) reported: When the Prophet ordered that a bell be rung so that people congregate for the prayer, I saw in my dream a person coming to me with a bell in his hand. So I said: ‘O servant of Allah! Will you sell(me) the bell?’ He said: ‘What will you do with it?’ I said, ‘We will call people with it to the prayer.’ So he said: ‘Should I not inform you of something which will be better than this?’ I said: ‘Yes, of course!’ So he said: Say: Allah is most great, Allah is most great, Allah is most great, Allah is most great. I testify that there is no god but Allah, I testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah. Come to pray, come to pray; come to salvation; come to salvation. Allah is most great, Allah is most great. I testify that there is no god but Allah. He then moved backward a few steps and said: when you utter the IQAMAH, you should say: Allah is most great, Allah is most great. I testify that there is no god but Allah, I testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah. Come to prayer, come to salvation. The time for prayer has come, the time for prayer has come: Allah is most great, Allah is most great. There is no god but Allah. The next morning, I came to the Messenger of Allah(SAWS) and informed him of my dream. He(SAWS) said: ‘This is a true dream (from Allah), Allah willing. Stand up with Bilãl and tell him (the words) that you saw in your dream, for he has a louder voice than you.’ So I stood with Bilal and started reciting to him (the words), and he would call them out (loudly). ‘Umar bin al-khattab(RA) heard it while he was in his house and came out trailing his cloak and said: Messenger of Allah. By him who has sent you with the truth, I have also seen the kind of thing as has been shown to him. The Messenger of Allah(SAWS) said: To Allah be the praise. Abu Dawud said: Al-Zuhri narrated this tradition in a similar way from Sa’id bin al-Musayyib on the authority of ‘Abd Allah bin Zaid. In this version Ibn Ishaq narrated from al-Zuhri: Allah is most great. Allah is most great, Allah is most great, Allah is most great. Ma’mar and yunus narrated from al-Zuhri; Allah is most great, Allah is most great. They did not report it twice again. [Sunan Abi Dawood, vol 1, page 302-304, #499 : Hasan as per Zubair Ali Za’ee] ; [classed as sahih by Ibn Khuzaymah, Sahih ibn Khuzaymah, vol 1, page 223-224, #370-371] and Ibn Hibbaan, 4/572. al-Tirmidhi narrated that Imam al-Bukhari deemed it sahih. [Al-Thamr al-Mustataab, page 113-115].

(c). Umar bin al-Khattab reported: The Messenger of Allah(SAWS) said: When the Mu’adhdhin says: Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest, and one of you should make this response: Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest; (and when the Mu’adhdhin) says: I testify that there is no god but Allah, one should respond: I testify that there is no god but Allah, and when he says: I testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, one should make a response: I testify that Muhammad is Allah’s Messenger. When he (the Mu’adhdhin) says: Come to prayer, one should make a response: There is no might and no power except with Allah. When he (the Mu’adhdhin) says: Come to salvation, one should respond: There is no might and no power except with Allah, and when he (the Mu’adhdhin) says: Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest, then make a response: Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest. When he (the Mu’adhdhin) says: There is no god but Allah, and he who makes a re- sponse from the heart: There is no god but Allah, he will enter Paradise. [Sahih Muslim, vol 1, page 489-490, #385].

Therefore, in the authentic reports from Prophet Muhammad(SAWS) we don’t find the wording  “Hay ala Khayr al-Amal” in the Adhan.

Benefit: There is a report Narrated from Abu Mahdhura  that Prophet(saws) said  make (add) in your last part of Adhan Hayyaa  ‘alaa Khayr Al-‘Amal“.

Answer: Imam Al-Dhahabi says that one of the narrator is a Rafidi liar. [Mizan al-itidal #552, vol 1, page 139]. Hence report is a fabrication.

Adhan in SHIA report from Ali(RA) is without the wording “Hay ala Khayr al-Amal”.

Al-Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abu Talib (AS) said: We were sitting in the Mosque when the muezzin [al-mu’dhdhin] went to the minaret and said: “Allah is the Greatest” [Allahu Akbar] twice. The Commander of the Faithful Ali ibn Abu Talib (AS) started to weep, which caused us to weep as well. Therefore, when the muezzin finished, `Ali (AS) asked, “Do you know the inner meaning of the call to prayer made by the muezzin? We all replied, “All, His Messenger (SA), and His Successor, know best.” So he (AS) explained, If you knew the meaning of the words of the call to prayer, you would laugh little and weep much. The statement “Allah is the Greatest” has many meanings. When the muezzin says “Allah is Greatest” it refers to His Eternity, His Sempiternity, His Infinity, His Knowledge, His Power, His Omnipotence, His Forbearance, His Munificence, His Generosity, His Bounty, and His Pride. When the muezzin says “Allah is the Greatest” he proclaims that the Creation and the Command belong to Allah. He proclaims that creation came about as a result of His Will. He proclaims that creation comes from Him, and will return to Him. He proclaims that He is the First of the First as He has always existed, and that He is the Last of the Last as He will always exit. He proclaims that He is the Manifest, who cannot be perceived, and that He is the Hidden, who is not subject to limitations of any sort. He proclaims that He is the Ever-Lasting, and that everything but Him will perish. The second meaning of “Allah is the Greatest” refers to the fact that He is All-Knowing, the All-Informed, who knows everything that has occurred and everything that will occur, even before it occurs. The third meaning of “Allah is the Greatest” is that He is All-Powerful over everything. His Power extends over everything. He is Powerful due to His Power, and the Potent One over His Creation. He is Powerful in Essence. His Power embraces all things. When He decrees a thing, He only says to it, “Be”, and it is. The fourth “Allah is the Greatest” refers to His Forbearance and Generosity. He forbears as if He were unaware of the sin, pardons as if He did no see the sin, and covers with mercy as if He had not been disobeyed. He does not hasten punishment out of His Generosity, Forgiveness, and Forbearance. Another meaning of “Allah is the Greatest” is that He is Generous, Ample-Giving, and the Most Munificent. The other meaning of “Allah is the Greatest” is to negate His Shape, and that Allah is Greater than any of His Attributes. Verily, those who describe Allah describe him on the basis of their own ability and not according to His Might and Majesty. Exalted is Allah, the Elevated, the Great, from what the attributers perceive as His Attributes. Another meaning of “Allah is the Greatest” refers to the fact that Allah is the Most High and Exalted. He is Self-Sufficient from His Servants. He is not in need of the deeds of His Creation. As for his statement: “I bear witness that there is no god but Allah” [ashhadu an la ilaha illa Allah], it declares that no profession of faith is permissible unless it comes sincerely from the heart. A sincere profession of faith is recognition that there is no one worthy of service but Allah, the Mighty and High, and refusing to serve other than Allah, the Mighty and High. My tongue confesses to my heart’s belief that there is no god but Allah. And I bear witness that there is no refuge from Allah except through Allah. And that there is no security from the evil of all evil doers and from the mischief of all mischief mongers, except with Allah. The second time that “I bear witness that there is no god but Allah” is proclaimed, it means: I bear witness there is no guide except Allah, and that there is no Guide but Allah. I bear witness to Allah that there is no god but Allah. And I call upon all the inhabitants of the heavens and the earth, and whatever is between them, including angels and human beings; and I call upon the mountains, the trees, the animals that are mounted, and the animals which are wild, and all that is wet and dry, that there is no Creator but Allah, and that there is no Sustainer, no One served, no Punisher, no Helper, no Seizer of Souls, no Extender, no Provider, no Preventer, no Defender, no Admonisher, no Sufficient, n o Cure, no Preceder, and no Final Destination except Allah. To Him belongs the Creation and the Command. In His Hand is all goodness. Blessed be Allah, the Lord of the Worlds! As for his statement: “I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah” [ashhadu anna Muhammadan Rasul Allah], it proclaims that: I bear witness to Allah that there is no god but Him, and that Muhammad (SA) is His Servant, Messenger, and Prophet, as well as the Sincere Bearer of His Secret. He sent him to all mankind with guidance, with the Religion of Truth and He might make it prevail over all other religions, no matter how much the polytheists may detest it. I bear witness to whoever is in the heaves and the earth, to the Prophets, Messengers, angels, and all mankind, that Muhammad (SA) is the Master of the First and the Last. The second time “I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah” is proclaimed, it means: I bear witness no one is in need of anyone but Allah, the One, the Dominant. Everything is in need of Him. Glory be to Him! He is Self-Sufficient from His Servants and all of creation. And I bear witness that He sent Muhammad (SA) to all people as a Bearer of Glad Tidings, as a Warner who invites to Allah by His Permission, and as a Light-Giving Torch. Therefore, whoever denies him, rejects him, and does not believe in him. Allah, the Mighty and High, will cast him in the Hell-fire forever and ever, and he shall never leave it. As for the statement: ”Hasten to the prayer” [hayya ala al-salah], i.e. come to the best of your deeds, and the invitation of your Lord it means: Hasten to the forgiveness of your Lord, who will free you from the burden of the Fire which you bear on your backs. Hasten to free yourselves from enslavement to sin, so that Allah may pardon you your wrongdoings, forgive you your sins, and replace your bad deeds with good deeds, since He is the Sovereign, the Generous, the Possessor of Excellence, and the Most Great. He has granted us, the Muslims, permission to enter into His service, and granted us precedence in entering into His Presence. The second time “hasten to the prayer” is said, i.e. rise up to communicate your needs to your Lord, it means: Seek access to Him through His Words, intercede with Him, and increase the mention of His Name, supplication, bowing down, prostration, submission, and humbleness. Elevate your needs before Him, for He has permitted us to do so. As for his statement ‘Hasten to the success” [hayya ala al-falah] it means: Come to eternity where there is no death, come to salvation from disaster; come to life without death, to comfort without exhaustion, to sovereignty that does not decline, to joy without grief, to sociability without loneliness, to light without darkness, to affluence without tightness, to joy without end, to gratification without desire, to health without illness, to dignity without humility, to strength without weakness, and to the greatest of honor. Hasten to the joy of this world and the Hereafter by attaining salvation in this world for the Hereafter. The second time that “hasten to the success” is said it means: Compete in what I have called you to; vie for ample generosity, great kindness, splendid bounty, great success, and everlasting comfort in the proximity of Muhammad (SA) in a seat of truth before a Powerful King. As for his statement: “Allah is the Greatest” [Allahu Akbar] it means: Allah’s Kindness towards His Creation is grater than anyone can possibly conceive. It refers to His Kindness towards His Servants through answering their prayers; His Kindness towards His Servants who obey Him, and who obey His Legal guardians; His Kindness towards His Servant who serves Him, who preoccupies himself with Him and His Remembrance, who loves Him, and who befriends Him; His Kindness towards Hi servant who find tranquility in Him, who trust Him, who fears Him, who puts his hope in Him, who yearns for Him, who accepts His Commands and decrees, and who is please with Him. The second time that “Allah is the Greatest” is said it means: Allah’s Kindness towards His Creation is so great that it cannot possibly be conceived. It refers to His Kindness, towards His Friends, His Punishment of His Enemies, the extent of His Pardoning, His Forgiveness, and His Bounty towards those who answer His Call, and the Call of His Messenger. It also refers to the extent of His Punishment and His Humiliation of those who deny Him and who reject Him. As for the statement: “There is no got but Allah” [la ilaha illa Allah] it means: Allah is the conclusive argument over humankind via His Messengers, His Message, His Clarification, and His Invitation. He is far above any argument against Him. Therefore, whosoever answers His Call, then for him is both light and kindness. And whosoever denies Him, then verily, Allah is Self-Sufficient from the Worlds, and He is the Swiftest in Taking Account. The meaning of “the prayer has begun” [qad qamat al-salah] in the Call to Prayer [iqamah] is: Now is the time for visiting, supplication, fulfilling needs, achieving wishes, and seeking Allah, the Mighty and High, as well as His Kindness, His Forgiveness, His Pardon, and His Pleasure.”[Kitab al-Tawheed, by Sadooq eng, page 249-254] ; [Kitab al-Tawheed, Arabic, page 238-241].

Therefore, Adhan of Ali(RA) is WITHOUT “Hayya Ala khair al-amal”. The Sunni Adhan is proven from Shia hadeeth, it’s without HAYYA ALA KHAYR AL-AMAL, without ASH-HADU ANNA ALIYAN WALI-ALLAH. And also at the end LAA ILAAHA IL-LALLAAH is just one time, unlike Shia Adhaan where it is said twice.

 

(VII). Ahlus-sunnah rejected the wording Haya ala khair al-amal in Adhan due to lack of evidence from Prophet(saws).

Argument

عبد الرزاق عن بن جريج عن نافع عن بن عمر أنه كان يقيم الصلاة في السفر يقولها مرتين أو ثلاثا يقول حي على الصلاة حي على الصلاة حي على خير العمل

Nafee said: ‘When Ibn Umar performed prayer while he was traveling, he used to say ‘Haya ala al-salat haya ala khayr al-amal’ twice or thrice’. [Musanaf Abdulrazaq, Volume 1 page 464]

Jaffar bin Muhammad narrated from his father that Ali bin al-Hussain used to say ‘Haya alaa Khayri al amal’ after ‘Haya alaa alfalah’ and he said that this is the first adhan. [Sunan al-Kubra by al-Bayhaqi, vol 1, page 625, #1993].

Answer:

(a). Imam al-Bayhaqi said regarding the wording “Haya ala Khair al-Amal” in Adhan:

وهذه اللفظة لم تثبت عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فيما علَّم بلالاً وأبا محذورة ونحن نكره الزيادة فيه

These words are not proven from Prophet(SAWS), these weren’t taught to Bilal and Abu Mahdhurah, and we reject these additional wordings in it. [Sunan al-Kubra by al-Bayhaqi, vol 1, page 625].

Therefore, Ahlus-sunnah(people upon Sunnah of Prophet) have rejected the wording “Haya ala khair al-Amal” in Adhan, because of lack of evidence of it being taught by Prophet(saws). The Adhan taught by Prophet(saws) doesn’t have this wording, as we showed in these authentic reports. [Sahih Muslim, vol 1, page 485-486, #379] ; [Sunan Abi Dawood, vol 1, page 302-304, #499] ; [Sahih Muslim, vol 1, page 489-490, #385].

(b). Imam al-Shawkani stated:

وأجاب الجمهور عن أدلة  إثباته بأن الأحاديث الواردة بذكر ألفاظ الأذان في الصحيحين وغيرهما من دواوين الحديث ليس في شيء منها ما يدل على ثبوت ذلك ،

The majority responded to its affirmation by saying that the hadiths that mention it in the sahihayn and other major works do not inclue what affirms it. [Nayl al-Awtar vol 2, page 40].

(c). As for the practise of Ibn Umar(ra), then Imam Ahmad ibn Taymiyyah said:

Even if the addition of the wording(Hayyaa ‘alaa Khair Al-‘Amal) is proven that some Sahaba like Ibn Umar occassionaly(it’s mentioned that he said it on journeys) said these wordings, then it was in the form of ‘Al-Tawkeed’(to emphasise) just as some of them (Sahaba) used to say it (‘Hayyaa ‘alaa Khayr Al-‘Amal’) between the two Nida’s (calls) of ‘Hayyaa ‘alaa Al-Salah’ and ‘Hayyaa ‘alaa Al-Falaah‘. This was called Nida al-Amra’a[Some of them called this as ‘Al-Tathweeb’], some of them deemed it permissible, but most of the scholars disliked it. [Minhaj as-sunnah vol 6, page 294] ; [Mukhtasar Minhaj as-Sunnah vol 2, page 64-65 ; Urdu].

Imam Ahmad ibn Taymiyyah makes an important point, that “Ibn Umar said it occasionally”, which proves that it was not part of the Adhan. And what some others did was more like an addition between the two main calls and not a real part of the Adhan, even this was disliked by most of the Scholars.

(d). As for the action of Ali ibn Hussain(rah), then, Shaykh Muhammad al-Ameen al-Shinqiti said while commenting on below hadith:

Bilal narrated: “I used to recite the phrase Hayya Ala Khayr al-Amal during the morning adhan until the prophet asked me to replace it with Al-Salat Khayrun Min al-Nawm. [Sunan al-Kubra #1994]

ولا يبعد أن يكون أثر بلال هذا هو الذي عناه علي بن الحسين ، وعلى كل فهذا الأثر وإن كان ضعيفاً فإنه مرفوع ، وفيه التصريح بالمنع منها ، وعليه الأئمة الأربعة وغيرهم إلا ما عليه الشيعة فقط .
ومن جهة المعنى ، فإن معناها لا يستقيم مع بقية النصوص الصحيحة الصريحة ، وذلك أنه ثبت عن النَّبي صلى الله عليه وسلم أن خير العمل أمر نسبي ، وأن خير جميع الأعمال كلها هو أولاً وقبل كل شيء الإيمان بالله ، وذلك أنه صلى الله عليه وسلم سئل » أي الأعمال أفضل يا رسول الله ، قال : « إيمان الله » ، قيل : ثم ماذا؟ فقال : « مرة الجهاد في سبيل الله » ، وقال مرة : « الصلاة على أول وقتها » ، وقال مرة : « بر الوالدين » وفي كل مرة يقدم إيماناً بالله

‘It’s not that far of a stretch (to believe) that the narration by Bilal is what was meant for Ali ibn Al-Hussein(Zain Al-‘Abideen) stance. In any case, all these reports although being weak – they are marfoo’ narrations in which there is a statement of probition by the Prophet(when the Prophet asked Bilal to replace ‘Hayyaa ‘alaa Khayr Al-‘Amal’ …). And the four Imams and others (Imams) were upon this as well (the prohibition of reciting ‘Hayyaa ‘alaa Khayr Al-‘Amal’ in Adhan), except the Shia. As for it’s meaning (‘Hayyaa ‘alaa Khayr Al-‘Amal’ – Hasten  for the Best of Deeds), then it is not correct when being compared to the other texts in the clear-cut and authentic Sunnah. This is because it has been authentically established that the Prophet(SAWS)  told us in detail what the BEST deeds are (the Shaykh goes on citing a narration), and (taking all together) the best deed is the belief in Allah (…). [Adhwa al-Bayaan, vol 8, page 262-263].

Indeed the best deed is believing in Allah and His Prophet(saws) as we find in Sahih al-Bukhari.

Allah’s Messenger(saws) was asked, “What is the best deed?” He replied, “To believe in Allah and His Apostle (Muhammad). The questioner then asked, “What is the next (in goodness)? He replied, “To participate in Jihad (religious fighting) in Allah’s Cause.” The questioner again asked, “What is the next (in goodness)?” He replied, “To perform Hajj (Pilgrim age to Mecca) ‘Mubrur, (which is accepted by Allah and is performed with the intention of seeking Allah’s pleasure only and not to show off and without committing a sin and in accordance with the traditions of the Prophet) [Sahih al-Bukhari vol 1, page 67, #26].

Therefore our stance is as what, Imam al-Bayhaqi said, that these words are not proven from Prophet(SAWS), hence we reject these additional wordings in Adhan.

 

Argument

One of the beloved scholars of Salafies namely Showkani stated in his book Nail al Awtar:

احتج القائلون بذلك بما في كتب أهل البيت كأمالي أحمد بن عيسى والتجريد والأحكام وجامع آل محمد من إثبات ذلك مسندا إلى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قال في الأحكام : وقد صح لنا أن حي على خير العمل كانت على عهد رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يؤذن بها ولم تطرح إلا في زمن عمر ، وهكذا قال الحسن بن يحيى روي ذلك عنه في جامع آل محمد ،

Some objected about that as in the books of Ahl al-Bayt like Amali of Ahmad bin Eisa and al-Tajreed and al-Ahkaam and Jami’ aal Mohammad where it was proven from Prophet Muhammad. He said: It has been proven to us to be Sahih that ‘Haya Ala Khair al Amal’ used to be recited in Adhan during the era of Prophet(saws) until it was abandoned in Umar’s reign and this is what the statement of Hassan bin Yahaya also, as reported from him in Jami’ aal Muhammad. [Nayl al-Awtar vol 2, page 39-40]

Answer:

Imam al-Shawkani was quoting Zaydi Shia scholars and their sources, such as the book Amaali of Ahmad bin Eisa bin Zayd bin Ali. Or Jami’ aal Muhammad of al-Hasan bin Yahya. These Zaydi Shia books have no weight in the sight of Ahlus-sunnah,.

The view of Imam al-Shawkani is completely different than the Zaydi Shia view.

Imam al-Shawkani in regards to Hayya ala Khayr al-Amal stated:

(Rough Translation) : This word/speech has become a centre of greatness amongst the majority of the Shia but the establishment of ruling between the opponents and the Slaves of Allah(Sunnis) is the book of Allah and Sunnah of his messenger. From what has come to us in them we listen and obey…and it isn’t established from Prophet(saws) in any of the books of hadeeth, and what has been narrated atmost is what is narrated by Tabarani and Bayhaqi from Bilal that he used to recite the phrase Hayya Ala Khayr al-Amal during the morning adhan until the prophet asked him to replace it with Al-Salat Khayrun Min al-Nawm and abandon Hayya ala Khayr al-Amal, and in the chain of this report is Abdur Rahman bin Ammar bin Sa’ad who is Da’eef(weak). al-Bayhaqi mentioned after presenting this report that, These words are not proven from Prophet(SAWS), these weren’t taught to Bilal and Abu Mahdhurah, and we reject these additional wordings(Hayya ala Khayr al-amal) in it. And with this, in this statement there is clarification from Prophet(saws) that he ordered Bilal(ra) to abandon it, and we agree this is evidence for its abrogation. [Al-Sayl al-Jarar al-Mutadaffiq ala Hadaiq al-Azhar, page 126].

Imam al-Shawkani also wrote:

It is mentioned in al-Intisar: There is no disagreement among the Four Jurists(Fuqaha) that the wording ‘Haya Ala Khair al Amal’ is not from the wording of Adhan. And Imam Izz ad-deen in Sharh al-Bahr and others who have the knowledge of the books of Shafi’ees rejected the (incorrect) attribution of ‘Haya ala Khayr al-Amal’ to Imam Shafi’i. [Nayl al-Awtar, vol 2, page 39].

 

May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon Prophet Muhammad, his family, and his companions.

Article by Ibn Ahmed al-Hindi.

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